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THE NAVAL BATTLES 

OF THE 

RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

Qiirtiilii T0^ 



Tokyo 
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OF THE 
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Errata, 



Page 1, 


line 6 


For DEPARTUE 


Read DEPARTURE 


Page 47, 


line 9 


For Idzumo 


Read Idzami 


Page 54. 


line 15 


For unconcions 


Read unconscious 


Page 57, 


line 11 


For ex-istence 


Read existence 


Pjige 102, 


line 1 


For as, well as 


Read as well as 


Page 108. 


line 10 


For rendez-vous 


Read rendezvous 


Page 111, 


line 26 


Ditto 




Page 112, 


line 12 


For singnalled 


Read signalled 


Page 119, 


line 22 


For Antstney 


Read Anastney 


Page 120, 


line 11 


For Admirl 


Read Admiral 



THE NAVAL BATTLES 



OF THE 



RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 



BY 



Captain To;»o 



Tokyo 
1907 




Admiral Togo. 





Vice-Admiral Uriu. 



Captain Togo. 



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PI^EF^CE 



Captain Togo, the author of this ' book, is a 
nephew of Admiral Togo whose fame has reverbera- 
ted tlirough the whole world, and whom all our 
Navy respects as a gallant man of arms. 

The Captain took an active part in all the 
naval engagements of the late Russo-Japanese War, 
during which he kept a diary, noting down all 
his movements and observations and interpolating 
poems of his o\vn composition ; and it speaks well for 
the strength and loftiness of his mind that he was 
capable of composing poetry during such hot and 
exciting actions. 

Making use then of this diary he wrote and 
pubHshed a book in Japanese entitled : " Naval 
Engagements of the Russo-Japanese War," con- 
taining many facts which have never appeared in 
any paper or official report. The descriptions too 
are so vivid and realistic that the reader feels as 
if lie were actually present at the scenes described. 

The Language Association, wishing to have 
the book read by English speaking people abroad, 
oMaiinl the author's permission to translate it, 
and asked me to undertake the task. Imperfect 
my translation may be, but I have followed the 
oi-iginal text witli the greatest closeness, and at- 



iviC8241 9 



tempted to render into plain and simple English 

its exact meaning. For the naval terms nsed in 

the book I have consulted a few specialists as 

well as the author and asked for their revision ; 

while one or two passages relating to Vice- Admiral 

Uriu have had his personal perusal and endorse 

ment. 

In conclusion I wish to express my sincere 

indebtedness to Prof. Austin Medley and Prof. T. 

Murai, my colleagues at the Tokyo School of 

Foreign Languages for the help they gave me in 

my work. 

J. Takakusu 

Tbansla-tor. 
June 25th, 1907. 



( ii ) 



Table of War-vessels and their Commanding Officers 
Mentioned in this Book. 



Service Formation. 

THE FIRST DIVISION. 

Commnnder-in -chief of the Combined Fleet, 

Vice-Admiml Heihachiro Togo, 

Flagship MikafMi. 

THE FIRST SQUAPBON. 

In Command, ReaT-Admiral Tokioki Nashiha, 

Flagship Hntsnso. 
Chief of the Staflf, 

Captain Hayao Shimamiira. 

lUittleshijM : Mikasa, Asahi, Fuji, Ynshima, Shikishima, and Hatsnse. 

Despatch Vessel Tatsnta. 

THE SECOND DIVISION. 

Commander-in-chief of the Second Squadron, 

Vice -Admiral Jlikonojo Ivamimura, 

Flagship Idzumo. 

THE SECOND SQT ADROX. 

In (onini.'ind, JJenr-Admiml Sotnio Misn, 

Flagship hvato. 
Chief of the StaflF, 

Captain Tomosalum Kato. 

Armonred Cruisers : Idznmo, Yakiimo, Asama, Tokiwn, and Iwate. 

Despatch Vessel Chihaya. 

THE THIRD DIVISION. 

In Commnnd, Rear-Admiral Sliigeto Dcwa, 

Flagship Cliitose. 



Crnisers : Cliitose, Kasagi, Takasago, and Yoshino. 
THE FOUKTH DIVISION. 

In Command, Rear-Admiral Sotokichi Uriii, 

Flagship Naniwa. 
Cniisers: Naniwa, Takachiho, Niitaka,iand Akashi. 

THE FIEST DESTEOYER FLOTILLA. " 

Commandant, Captain Shojiro Asai. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyers : Shirakumo, Kasnmi, Asashiwo, and Akatsnki. 

THE SECOND DESTROYER FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander Ichiro Ishida. 

Torpedo Bait Destroyers : Ikadznchi, Inadzuma, Oboro, and Akebono. 

THE THIRD DESTROYER FI.OTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander Kokin Tsuchiya. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyers : Usugumo, Shinonome, and Sazanami. 

THE FOURTH DESTROYER FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander Gimkichi Nagai. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyers : Hayatori, Hanisame, Miirasame, and Asagiri. 

THE FIFTH DESTROYER FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander hvajiro Mano. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyers : Kagero, Shiranni, Miirakumo, and Yngiri. 

THE NINTH TORPEDO-BOAT FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander Junkichi Yajima. 
Torpedo-boats: Aotaka, Ivari, Hato, and Tsubame. 

THE FOURTEENTH TORPEDO-BOAT FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Lieutenant Commander Yoshimaru Sakiirai. 
Torpedo-boats: Manadzuru, Chidori, Hayabusa, and Kasasagi. 



I. Battle Near Plialmi (llachibito) Island. 



THE FOUETH DIVISION. 
In Communil, Ileal- Admiral Sotokichi Uriu, 



Senior StaflE Officer, 
Staff Officer, 
Captain of the Nauiwa, 
Captain of the Takacliibo, 
Captain of the Niitaka, 
Captain of the Akashi, 
Captain of the Asama, 
Captain of the Chiyodji, 
Caijtain of the Cliihayn, 



Flagship Nauiwa. 
Lioutoiiant Commander Keizaburo Moriyama 
].i. utenuut Shoshiii Taniguchi. 
Captiiin Kensiike "NVadji. 
Captain Ichibei Mori. 
Commander Yowhimoto Slioji. 
Commander Teishiii Miyoji. 
Captain Eokuro Yashiro. 
Captain Kakiiichi Murakami. 
Commander Masayoshi Fukui. 



THE NINTH TORPEDO BOAT FLOTILLA. 

Commaiidant, Commander Junkichi Ynjima. 

THE FOURTEENTH TORPEDO BOAT FLOTILLA. 
Commandant, Li- utciuiut Commander Yobbimuru Sakurai. 

II. Battle off Ulsau. 



Commander-in-chief of the Second Squadron, 

Vice-Admiral Hikonojo Kamimura, 

Flagship Idzumo. 



THE SECOND SQUADRON. 



In Command, 



Chief of the Statt, 
Senior Staff Officer, 
Captain of the Idzumu, 
Captain of the Adziima, 
Captain of the Tokiwa, 
Captain o( the Iwatc, 



Rear- Admiral Sotaro Misu, 

Flagshii) Iwate. 
C.iptuin Tomosaburo Kato. 
Commander Tetsiitaro Sato. 
Captain Su. yi, lii Ijichi. 
Captain Kuiclii I'njii. 
Captain Shigetaro Yoshimatsu. 
Captain Saililvnni Takolomi. 



(iii) 



THE NINTH TOEPEDO BOAT FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander JunkicM Yajima. 

THE FOUKTEENTH TOKPEDO BOAT FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander Naoshi Kasama. 

THE FOURTH DIVISION. 

In Command, Vice-Admiral Sotokichi Uriu, 

FlagshiiD Naniwa. 
StafE Officer, Lieutenant Commander Keizaburo Moriyama 

Captain of the Naniwa, Captain Kensuke Wuda. 

Captain of the Takachiho, Captain Ichilei Mori. 
Captain of the Niitaka, Cunimander Yoshimoto Shoji. 

Cajjtain of the Tsushima, Commander Takehide Sento. 

III. liattle of tlie Sea of Japan. 

THE FIEST DIVISION. 

Commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet, 

Admiral Heihachiro Togo, 

Flagship Milcasa. 

THE FIRST SQUADRON. 

In Command, Vice-Admiral Sotaro Misu, 

Flagship Nisshin. 
Chief of the Staff, Rear-Admiral Tomosaburo Kato. 

Senior Staff Officer, Commander Shinshi Akiyama. 

Captain of the Mikasa, Captain Hikojiro Ijichi. 

Captain of the Shikishima, Captain Inazo Teragaki. 
Captain of the Fuji, Captain Wa Matsumoto. 

Captain of the Asahi, Captain Komei Nomoto. 

Captain of the Kasuga, Captain Sadakichi Kato. 

Captain of the Nisshin, Captain Heihiro Takenouchi. 

Captain of the Tatsuta, Commander Bunzo Yamagata. 

THE SECOND DIVISION. 

Commander-in-chief of the Second S(|uadroD, 

( iv ) 



Vice-Admiral Ilikouojo Knmiiaura, 

Flagship Idzuiiio. 

THE SECOND SQUADRON. 



In Command, Bear- Admiral 

Chief of the Staff, 
Senior Staff Officer, 
Captain of the Idziimu, 
Captain of the Adzuma, 
Captain of the Tokiwa, 
Captain of the Yakumo, 
Captain of the Asama, 
Captain of the Iwate, 
Captain of the Chihaya, 



Hayao Shimamura, 

Flagshij) I\>ate. 
Captain Koichi Fujii. 
Commander Tetsutaro Sjito. 
Captain Sueyoshi Ijichi. 
Captain Kaknichi Murakami. 
Captain Shigetaro Yoshimatsn. 
Captain I'^ushin Matsumoto. 
Captain llokuro Yashiro. 
Captain Reijiro Kawasshima. 
Commander llinroku Eguchi. 



THE FOURTH DESTROYER FLOTILLA. 

Commandant, Commander Kwantaro Suzuki. 
Captain of the Asagiri, Lieutenant Commander Nobutaro lida. 
Captain of the Asa.shiwo, Lieutenant Commander Dan-ichi Nauri. 
Captain of the Shirakumo, Lieutenant Commander Seiyu Kamada. 
Captain of the Mxuasame, Lieutenant Commander Eenzo Kobayasbi. 

THE THIRD DESTROYER FLOTILLA. 
Captain of the Usugumo, Lieutenant Commander Chukichiro Masuda 



( V ) 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

CHAPTER I. Our De{)arture from Port and the 

Battle near Plialmi Island 1 

CHAPTER n. A Tribute to the Late Admiral 
Makaroif, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian 
Fleet 20 

CHAPTER ni. The Battle off Ulsan 29 

CHAPTER IV. How the Rurik was sunk off 

Ulsan 37 

CHAPTER V. The ]3attle of the Sea of 

Japan 45 



THE NAVAL BATTLES OF THE 
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

A Captain's Account. 

By Kichitaro Togo. 

" CHAPTER I. 

OUR DEPARTUE FROM PORT AND THE 
BATTLE NEAR PHALMI ISLAND. 

At 1 a.m. on the 6tli of Feb. in tlie 37tli 
>( ;ii' of Meiji (1904) Admiral Togo, commander- in - 
ctiief of our combined fleets, summoned all the 
Captains and Commanders of the Japanese navy 
on ])oard his flag- ship the Mikasa. Standing in a 
dignified yet reverential attitude, he delivered to the 
;is8(»mbled officers tlie lni|»( i i;il commands that the 
Km--', 111 fleet shouM Ix- (IctVnfctl. niid nt the snmo 
t i n 1 ( * gave orders f < > i  < > 1 1 r I * '< » 1 1 r 1 1 1 Squadron to lea ve 
^jort at 2 p.m. on tliaf (i;i\ lo clear tlie enemy 
out of ChemuliX), and act as convoy for the mihtary 
expedition to be sent there. 



At that time we could not know for certain 
whether the troops would land at Chemulpo or 
Asan, as we were waiting for the report of our 
lookout ship the Chiyoda. Saseho presented an 
aspect full of activity and interest that night. 
There were over a hundred of our war- ships and 
other vessels all shining with lights bright as stars. 
Innumerable boats were busily flying to and fro. 
Such a sight could not fail to inspire one with a 
spirit of daring and firm conviction of victory. 

When the glorious dawn tinged the hill tops 
of Eboshiyama with light, we gazed at the familiar 
mountains and s6a surrounding us. 'One night ap- 
peared to have wrought a cheerful change in them. 
Our chagrin and disappointment at the delay of our 
sailing orders were dispelled by the morning breeze 
now driving the belated mist of night before it. 
Officers and men alike went about with happy 
smiles on their faces, and cheerful words on their 
lips. At 9 a.m. the destroyer flotillas got into 
movement and left the harbour one after anotlier, 
all the shipping manning yards and giving three 
Banzais as a parting salute. It was indeed a 
thrilling sight, and one I am incapable of describing. 

After the departure of the destroyers, the Third 
Squadron weighed anchor, then the Second, then 
the First, and finally our squadron, the Fourth, 
followed suit, and set out to fullll her allotted task. 

( 2 ) 



At 1.45 p.m. our cruiser the Nauiwii lioisted 
at her gaff the glorious ensign used at the Battle 
of the Yellow Sea in the Japan-China War. 

The auspicious motto " Bunn Hosho " — May 
good fortune in war be yours — Awitten specially for 
the Naniwa by Admiral Ito himself when chief of 
tlie Navy General Staff, ,was on the lips of all on 
board. Such was our triumphant departure from 
the port of Saseho ; but before leaving harboui', 
Captain Wada gathered us all on deck to tell us 
of tlie unsatisfactory conclusion of the diplomatic 
negotiations with Russia, whereby war had become 
imavoidable. He exhorted each of us to discharge 
his duty to the very best of liis ability for the 
sake of home and country, and at the close of his 
address we gave three hearty Bamais for the 
Emperor and His Imperial Navy. Then passing 
l>etween cheering vessels with all their yards 
maiiiKMl we set out on our expedition. 

Near Ihozaki we were joined by three trans- 
ports, the Tairen Maru, Heijo Maru, and Otaru Maru, 
conveying the troops under the command of G(MUTal 
Kogoshi. 

When we saw Shijiki Hill on our starboard 
side our commander Bear- Admiral Uriu hoisted a 
signal on his flag-ship communicating his own con- 
viction about the expedition, and his greeting to 
all under liis command in tlie following words : 

( 3 ) 



'* We are now taking a last farewell of the beauties 
of our native land ; I trust to your faithful loyalty 
for the performance of a great exploit for the sake 
of our country ; and pray for the prosperity of 
all." 

At 4.45 that afternoon the call to quarters was 
made on board, and after that the torpedo defences 
were put out, and by sunset the lookouts stationed 
at their posts. 

With the calm of evening it occurred to us 
that our destroyers were to make an attack on 
Port Arthur and Talien two nights later, and we 
earnestly hoped they would have fine weather for 
their exploit, whether the Russians were outside 
Port Arthur or inside Talien-wan. We prayed 
too that the objects of our own expedition, the 
Russian ships in Chemulpo, would not take it into 
their heads to leave before our arrival. With these 
hopes and prayers the day was brought to a close. 

At daw^n on Feb. 7th various islands of 
Southern Corea came in view, and the sea stretched 
all around blue and motionless ; a sight particular- 
ly pleasing to us inasmuch as the smoothness of 
the water enabled om%„ torpedo boats to keep com- 
pany. 

Out of the thousands of soldiers on the trans- 
ports not one was seasick, and they might have 
been seen calmly enjoying the sight of the sea- 

( 4 ) 



gulls skimming the waves, and pr(.)l)ul)l\' congratu- 
lating themselves on the seamanlike qualities they 
were displaying. 

At 8.30 a.m./ as Nine-pin Rock in S. W. Corea 
lay in sight on onr starboard bow, we got a wire- 
less message telling us of the capture of a Russian 
merchantman the "Russia." The name of this 
early prize appeared to us to be a good omen, and 
hearty Banzais for the Imperial Xji\y ])urst from 
our lips. 

By 4.30 p.m. we were close to Sliingle Island, 
at which point a signal was flown from the flag- 
ship congratulating us in anticipation, and ^\ itli it 
we separated from tlie main body of the fleet. 
The Asama joined us and we steered for Chemulpo, 
tlie Takaclu'lio leading. 

Almost innnediately the latter vessel came io 
an abrupt stop, and when we took up our glasses, 
anxious to discover the cause, she signalled us 
that she had collided with a large whale. We 
soon jx^rceived the water turning crimson with the 
blood of the wounded beast, and looked upon it 
as anotlier incident to cheer us on our way. 

Next morning Feb. 8t*i at 8 o'clock we made 
out to the far north Baker Island, a blue spot in 
the hazy distance, and on our nearer approach fell 
in with the Chiyoda on her way from Chemulpo. 
Slie re]X)i'ted eveiy tiling unchanged there, the 

( ^^ ) 



Eussian men-of-war the Varyag and Coreetz being" 
still in harbour there. Rear- Admiral Uriu signalled 
a message of thanks running, " The Commander 
acknowledges tlie valuable services rendered by 
your Captain and his subordinates." 

From 12.30 noon until 2.30 p.m. we halted in 
Asan Bay, and then got under way, the Chiyoda,. 
Takachiho, Asama and the torpedo boats to enter 
Chemulpo with the transports, w^liile the Xaniwa, 
Niitaka and Akaslii follow^ed to take up a posi- 
tion west of Phalmi Island and await eventuali- 
ties. 

Our leading torpedo boats met the Coreetz 
coming out of port, and she opened fire at once^ 
wdiereupon our ships prepared for action and await- 
ed their opportunity, but the Russian gave way 
before our superior force, and retired to the vicin- 
ity of Uolmi (Getsubito) Island. 

Our leading detachment the Chiyoda and Taka- 
chiho then moved in company with the trans- 
ports, and reached the berth for foreign war- ships,, 
w^hile the torpedo boats cast anchor within a suit- 
able distance of the Coreetz, ready to open firo 
at any moment. 

Disembarkation proceeded all night, and the 

l^aniwa, Akashi and Niitaka steamed fui'ther up 

into Chemulpo to make a demonstration before 

tlie Varyag, after which the Akashi remained to 

( 6 ) 



cover the landing operations, and the utlur two 
retired outside the harbour. 

In spite of the fact that the Coreetz had opened 
fire on us, tlie Russian war- ships behaved with the 
utmost unconcern; their washing was hanging out 
to dry, and their swinging booms out as if they 
were wholly indifferent to tlie mcnt drama about 
to be enacted. 

What must have been their amazement when 
they found we were prepared for action, our gun- 
ners coming up on deck with their gloves for 
loading. Perliaps, however, they did not know 
what to make of this. 

During the night our squadron lay in a posi- 
tion west of Phalmi Island outside Chemulpo, aiul 
observed the Russian attitude. 

By daybreak on Feb. 9th tlie transports had 
completed the work of disembarkation, and left the 
port after da^vn in company with their guardships. 

Thereupon Rear- Admiral Uriu informed the 
senior Russian captain that the presence of his 
ships in the port was harmful to the general peace, 
and demanded, under threat of an attack in force, 
that they should leave by noon. 

At the same time he requested tlio captains of 
tli(» English cruiser " Talbot," the French '* Pascal,*||P 
and the Italian ** Elba " to shift their anchorage, 
promising that no attack shotild be delivered be- 

( 7 ) 



fore 4 p.m. An American war-ship was also 
present, but she was further up the harbour. 

At noon an officer came from the Talbot, per- 
haps to decline the request to change anchorage 
on the ground that Chemulpo was a neutral port ; 
or possibly, as the time mentioned in our ulti- 
matum to the Eussians had now expired, the latter 
had asked for the friendly offices of the foreign 
captains. 

The enemy, however, were without means of 
escape from their dilemma. If they dared to 
engage us, their own destruction would be the 
result, and on the other hand retreat was impos- 
sible. 

The time for decision was passing, and to 
safeguard their honoiu- they seem to have been 
forced to resolve on fitrhtino;. 

The Varyag and Coreetz accordingly weighed 
anchor at noon, and advanced towards our superior 
force with a boldness which elicited our heartiest 
admiration. The decision of the captain of the 
Varyag, besides being deserving of all honour, 
was a great stroke of good fortune for us, in that 
it enabled the Fourth Squadron to make a glorious 
name for itself. Chemulpo was a neutral port 
where the presence of the foreign men-of-war 
prevented our opening fire, and was also a very 
inconvenient place to fight an action in. When 

( 8 ) 



therefore the enemy came out to meet us, every 
one was dehghted. We were all grateful for the 
opportimity of winning renown, but the greater 
part of the credit attaching to the action is due 
to the men who served the guns on board the 
Asama. 

At 12.22 precisely the Asama opened fire with 
lier forward 8 inch .mm, to which the Varyag 
replied. 

The Englisli officer, who was still on board 
the Naniwa, then Imrriedly left in the steam launch, 
and all the Japanese ships went forthwith into 
action. The Asama, alone, led and was followed 
by the Chiyoda, Naniwa and Niitaka, whilst the 
Takachiho and Akashi formed the third firing line. 

At 12.24 our wliole squadron opened fire with 
the port battery on the Varyag lying about three 
points on our port bow, and the action lasted 
some 40 minutes, during whicli time we manoeu- 
vred in the naiTOw channel. At 12.37 a shell from 
the Asama hit the fore bridge of the Varyag, and 
was followed by several straight shots, while three 
minutes later the Naniwa again hit the same 
vessel, this time amidships. 

In the meantime Ihc Kiissians continued to 
pour in a rapid fire, but their gunnery was very 
inferior, some of their sliots flying high over liead, 
others dropping sliort into the sea and incommod- 

( 9 ) ' 



ing nobody but the fish. Our shells, on the con- 
trary, even when they fell short of the mark, 
burst m a most terrifymg manner, while the effect 
of the straight shots was incredible except to an 
c^ye witness of the dense black smoke they 
spread around them, and their tremendous explo- 
sive power. 

At 12.55 fire broke out in the after part of 
the Yaryag and she seemed trying to make for 
the shelter of Phalmi Island. At this sight our 
men could not refrain from shouting Banzai and 
one sailor rushed into the forward battery bawling 
' ' Zama miyagare! " — there you are,you fools ! Many 
of us laughed at his outburst, but after all did 
not that one voice express the natural indignation 
of Japan against ten years of llussian violence 
and injustice ? The enemy took refuge behind 
the island, out of range, and we then at 1.15 
ceased fire, and the action came to an end. 
Shortly afterwards the Varyag made for the Chem- 
ulpo anchorage. The Asama started in pursuit, 
but did not continue the chase, returning to her 
previous station at 1.50 p.m. At 4.30 there was 
a sudden explosion accompanied by a violent 
shock, and a column of white smoke rose high 
into the air above the harbour, evidently caused 
by the blowing up of a Russian war- ship. Bring- 
ing our glasses to bear, w^e made out the Varyag 

( 10 ) 



lyiii^j. iiuar Uolmi Island in a lialf shattered con- 
dition, and with a lieavy list to port. 

Not being able to see the Coreetz, we came 
to the conclusion she had probably destroyed and 
sunk herself, and th(^ Akashi and Manadzuru 
wei-e forthwith despatched to make a reconnais- 
sniicr of the harbom*. At 5.50 we received a 
wii'eless message from tlie former, on her return 
fi-oni ('hemulpo, to say that they could find no 
traces of the Coreetz wliich was probably sunk, 
and that the Vaiyag was still burning, heavily 
inclined to the port side. AVe had no farther 
report as to the damage done to the Varyag, Imt 
could see through the glasses tliat the after bridge 
wfis all twisted up, niid tlic foi'e bridge practically 
wrecked. 

At 6.30 we noticed a lii'e break out in tlie 
direction of Chemulpo, and then the soimd of an 
explosion reached our ears, by which we mider- 
stood that the Varyag had resorted to the last 
alternative of destroying and sinking herself. 

Sunset on this memorable 0th of Feb. was 
jij'jMoaching. Our Fourth Squadron had amply 
discharged its task of covei in- tlie landing of the 
troops, and destroying the hostile ships at Che- 
muI|K), and we had passed scatheless through the 
first stage of the war. 

Full of admiration foi' tlie ilhistrioiis virtues 

( 11) 



of His Majesty the Emperor, to wliicli tliis liappy 
result was due, all our officers and men gave 
vent to exultant Banzals for His Majesty the Gener- 
alissimo, the whole Imperial Navy and our com- 
mandant Rear- Admiral Uriu. In tlie evening our 
staff officer Moriyama went to Chemulpo to tele- 
graph home the report of oin* engagement, by 
which time the town was already occupied and 
guarded by our army, the wharf being secured 
with a sufficient force. 

The town was full of excitement at the first 
day of war, and Moriyama forced his way through 
the surging crowds, and proved to be the first 
to despatch the news home. 

Thus the introductory scene of the first act 
of the Ens so -Japanese war was auspiciously opened 
with a naval success near Phalmi Island. 

The sailors on the Coreetz boarded the Rus- 
sian merchantman Sungary. The latter, however, 
sustained a severe shock at the time of the 
former's explosion, and was in a leaky condition, 
whereupon they landed on Uolmi Island, and 
shortly afterwards the Sungary lierself foun- 
dered. 

The men then applied for surrender to our 
consul through the Russian consul, but afterwards 
some of them took refuge in the French man-of- 
war Pascal, falsifying their previously expressed 

( 1^ ) 



desire for surrender, and forfeiting their integrity 
in a manner pitiful to think of. 

The captain of the Yaryag visited the Eng- 
Msh, Fi-ench and ItaUan captains before tlie en- 
gagement, and asked them to leave Chemulpo in 
company with him ; but his attempt to escape 
our cordon by this device proved vain, as the 
foreign officers did not fall in with his wishes. 
He is said to have retm^ned to his ship very dis- 
consolate. It was probably this rebuff, and the 
obligation they felt to preserve their honour in 
the eyes of the foreign men of war which drove 
the Russians into the hostile attitude they event- 
ually took up. 

The Russian casualties in the net ion were 
very heavy, and it was no unreasonabk' supposi- 
tion on the part of the inhabitants of Chemulpo, 
both Japanese and foreign, that we had suffered 
too. As a matter of fact not one of our ships 
was hit and tliere were no casualties wliatever. 

When Lieutenant Commander Moriyama men- 
tioned the fact that evening at the Consulate, all, 
inchiding Consul Kato, were incredulous ; and even 
the naval officers resident in the town were inclined 
to believe sometliing was being coiiccnicd. The 
Yaiyag alone had over 100 casualties, and in 
view of that fact, and in spite of Moriyama's 
assertion, those present could not bring tliemselvcs 

( 13) 



to believe that we had escaped scot free. 

Later in the evening when Moriyama was 
present at the congratulatory dinner in the Con- 
sulate, the Consul plucked him privately by the 
sleeve and asked in a low voice, " Is what you 
tell us about no casualties really true ? Perliaps 
you are obliged to say so because the facts may 
not be made public ; are you not free to tell me 
the truth ?" Our staff officer was at a loss to 
know how to dissipate his suspicions, and tliis 
incident may serve to show the contrast between 
the extent of damage on their side and on ours. 

On the 16th of Feb. the Russian Envoy with- 
drew from Seol, embarked on the Pascal and left 
Chemulpo for the outer sea via the Flying Fish 
Channel. This is the true story of his desertion of 
his post, for which he afterwards advanced the 
excuse that he was forcibly expelled. 

Before the situation became threatening, a 
Ladies Red Cross Society of Chemulpo had been 
organised by a number of Japanese ladies headed 
by Mrs. Kato, the wife of the Consul, with the 
view of nursing the Japanese wounded. As, how- 
ever, there was no necessity for this work, they 
decided to tend the Russian wounded instead. 

Dr. Wada, naval staff surgeon, and the head 
doctor of the Chemulpo hospital, took the lead in 
managing affairs, and the Pascal handed over for 

( 14 ) 



proper attention 24 of tliose wounded on the 
Varyag. 

This was probably the first instance of the 
Red Cross Society working througli the generous 
and humane liands of Japanese ladies for the 
benefit of Europeans. 

The Russian wounded, who had been taken 
on board the Enghsli nnd Italian men-of-war, 
begged to be received into the care of the society, 
but owing to lack of adequate accommodation 
their request had to be refused. Tliose fortunate 
enough to be taken in were said to have been 
delighted with the benevolent and sympathetic 
care they received from the Japanese ladies, and 
afterwards presented a letter of thanks of which 
the following is n translation : 

"We, tlu' wounded seamen of the sunken 
cmiser Vaiyag, who have been taken hito the 
Japanese Hospital at Chemulpo, hereby wish to 
express our profound thanks for the generous 
and humane manner in which we have been 
treated by the Japanese authorities and the Red 
Cross nurses who relieved us. We are at the 
same time greatly indebted for the favours sho^vn 
to us, the Russian .seamen, by all the surgeons, 
doctors, and volunteer nurses, engaged in the above 
named hospital, as well as all the Japanese resi- 
dents at Chemulpo. Especially we are grateful 

( 15 ) 



for the great generosity with which His Excellency 
Eear- Admiral Uriu, in command of the Japanese 
Division, sent Dr. Yamamoto his chief surgeon to 
visit us in our distress and also for the labours 
of that gentleman on our behalf. We, the Eussian 
seamen, are glad to have the honour of congratu- 
lating His Excellency Rear- Admiral Uriu, surgeon 
Yamamoto, as well as all those who assisted in, 
or are connected with, the work of the Red Cross 
Hospital, and jjray for their future happiness. 
Moreover we owe our thanks to the volunteer 
nurses from Seol, who came so far down to visit 
us, and showed their sympathy toward us for our 
narrow escape with presents of clothes etc. Final- 
ly we have greatly appreciated the trouble taken 
for us by all others of kind and generous 
heart." 

According to the reports of the wounded, 
most of the men on the upper deck of the Varyag 
were wounded early in the day by our first 
straight shots, and the stokers had to act as 
shell bearers. On the forward bridge there were 
a great many casualties, and a single shell swept 
away the whole strength of the six gunners on 
the fore deck. If they struck even a canvas the 
Japanese shells burst and scattered the fragments 
all over the deck, causing many injuries, and from 
time to time outbreaks of fire. 

( 16 ) 



One shell struck the hand of an officer on 
the fore bridge and immediately exploded, shiver- 
ing his body into atoms to the horror of all who 
saw it. On another occasion a shell burst on 
the upper deck, the effect of the explosion blow- 
ing two seamen off the flying bridge high into 
the air. 

Tlie high power of the explosive was simply 
astonishing ; one shell hit the " top " and shattered 
the armour plate, a spHnter of which was project- 
ed into a sailor's foot, piercing deep into the 
bone. It was afterwards found impossible to ex- 
tiact the piece and the foot had to be amputat- 
ed. Tlie completeness with which the shells 
burst was further demonstrated by one man 
having no less than 120 splinter wounds on his 
body. 

The crew of the Varyag talked of the unpop- 
ularity of their commander and remarked to our 
officer, " Our fellows on the Coreetz had wine 
served out before the action, so they were brave 
enough, and besides, none of your shells hit them. 
We did not get any wine, and so our courage 
failed us, and many therefore were hit by your 
fire." 

The fact that they did not hesitate to ascribe 
their woimds to the omission of the authorities 
to sen^e out wine is a sufficient indication of tlie 

( 17 ) 



state of education among the Russian rank and 
file ; the serving out of wine to the men to put 
courage into them seems a somewhat cowardly 
device. 

Later in the war a Russian transport the 
Manchuria with 1000 soldiers on board was made 
a prize off Asan, and the men expressed them- 
selves as pleased with their capture, and glad to 
avoid any fighting. 

These incidents taken in conjunction reveal 
clearly enough the low morale of the Russian 
soldiers and sailors. Tlie Varyag was hit three 
times in the port side amidships near the water line 
which gave her a list and the appearance of foun- 
dering. The steering gear, too, got out of order, 
and she was very near running aground on the 
north of Phalmi Island, but just managed to reach 
Chemulpo by means of the hand steering gear. 
It was at this juncture that she looked to us to 
be trying to take refuge behind the island. 

Five times during the action fire broke out. 
Four times it was extinguished, but on the fifth 
occasion it started in the hold just below the 
captain's cabin and was not got under, continuing 
to burn till she reached the anchorage at Che- 
mulpo where she was sunk. 

The damage suffered by the Varyag was real- 
ly quite remarkable. She had three big holes 

( 18) 



through her side near the larboard water Hue ; 
the conning tower on the forward bridge was 
hit and her captain wounded at the same time. 
In addition she was damaged in eleven other 
places in her after bridge, sides, fimnels and 
mizzen top. 

The numbers of the /lUissians taken into tlie 
three foreign war- ships were roughly as follows: — 

The Talbot 300 including 20 wounded. 

The r^i^cal.. ..200 „ 20 

The Elba 120 „ 10 

The reason given for tliis unusual international 
incident was that the sailors themselves fled to 
the ships, but the foreign captains gave a pledge 
to oiii' envoy that these men should take no 
further active part in the war, and declared that 
they would despatch them to their own territory ; 
the English to Singapore, the French to Shang- 
hai. The latter power, however, would probably 
make use of Annam. The Italians having no 
possessions in the East, liad a great deal of 
trouble with the ill-staiTcd Russians they had taken 
in. Their captain grumbled a little, but met witli 
nothing more tangible tlian syin])athy. 



( 19) 



CHAPTER II. 

A TRIBUTE TO ADMIRAL MAKAROFF. 

On Apr. 15th 1904 a certain Japanese naval 
officer expressed his respectful sympathy to the 
spirit of Admiral Makaroff lately commanding 
the Eussian Pacific fleet in the following words : 

When a warrior goes out to the field his life 
ought to be a matter of no concern to him. Death 
comes to all men, and knowing this, warriors 
ought to fight bravely, even if by so doing they 
lose their lives. But his is the greatest honour 
who sacrifices his life to the greatest advantage. 
Now yours was lost in no such happy circum- 
stances. Your life was sacrificed as it were in 
vain, and no great honour accrued with your 
death. For your sake I regret this most pro- 
foundly. 

Looking to the advantage of my country I 
was rather pleased at the news that you had 
been killed at the very outset, but as a samurai 
of Japan I cannot refrain from sincerely lament- 
ing your death. You were the most eminent 
naval tactician in Russia ; you had the firmest 
will joined with the deepest knowledge. You 



were one of the three tactical autliorities of re- 
pute in the present age ; an honour which you 
still share with Captain Mahan of the U. S. A. 
and Admiral Colomb of England. The two latter 
have elaborately discussed the elements of sea 
power or principles of tactics and strategy, yet 
no man can tell what are their qualifications for 
fighting under the hottest fire, directing the phases 
of a battle, and commanding a great fleet. Your 
case is quite different. In the Russo- Turkish war 
of 1877-8 you took entire charge of the torpedo 
attack in the Black Sea, when one moonlight 
night you dashed into the bay of Batoum with 
two boats, both equipped with torpedoes, and sunk 
the enemy's ships. The daring of your enterprise 
terrified the Turkish fleet although of superior 
force, and since then your name has gone out 
among the naval officers of the whole world as 
that of a brave and daimtless captain. 

After that you made a thoroughly practical 
study of naval science of all kinds and were 
promoted step by step to the post of admiral, 
which you lately occupied. Whether in times of 
peace you were lacking in tact in your relations 
with your fellow officers or not, you were put in 
a subordinate position, removed from the centres 
of influence in the Russian navy. 

When, however, i^eaceful relations between 

(21 ) 



Japan and Eussia were broken, and Admiral 
Starck was defeated at Port Arthur in the first 
engagement, the Czar again summoned you to 
entrust you with the command of the defeated 
fleet. But it was too late, and your situation at 
that juncture still calls for our deepest sym- 
pathy towards you. • 

A few years ago your work on naval tactics 
was published. Amongst other things your views 
on the influence of the moral element in battle, 
and use of the torpedo proved very instructive to 
us, while at the same time they forbade us to 
make light of the abilities of the Russian Navy. 
The facts, however, which have recently been forced 
upon our notice were contradictory to the inference 
we had drawn. In your work you laid down the 
moral qualiflcations for warriors as follows : — (1) 
IntelHgence never hesitating at the solution of 
any difficult problem. (2) Power of bold deci- 
sion. (3) Cool judgment at the most critical 
moment. 

The need of these moral qualifications advocat- 
ed by you was well understood by the Russian 
officers and men ; but once the guns began to 
fire,- there were very few among them who did 
not hesitate at problems set them, who. dared to 
take bold and decisive steps risking all in battle, 
or who had the power of cool judgment at the 

(22) 



critical moment. As a matter of fact the lack of 
these qualities was most remarkable. 

On the other hand the officers and men of the 
Japanese Imperial Na\y were altogether disinterest- 
ed in their actions during battle, and were intent 
on the one aim of annihilating the enemy. At 
the word of command tliey never shrank from 
meeting any kind of peril whatever. They were 
always bold and daring, and at the same tim3 
full of judgment. Such qualities are almost con- 
genital in the Japanese samurai, and are the secret 
of the glorious development of our Biishido, The 
character of the Japanese samurai is thus almost 
identical with your ideals, and perhaps while yo:i 
were yet living you looked on our Bushido wit'i 
admiration and envy. 

You used to dwell upon the necessity of the 
significance of a glorious death being well under- 
stood by warriors, and argued tliat it was all the 
more important among officers and men of the 
navy. Nevertheless from the beginning of the war 
the Russian war-ships always took to flight in 
the time of engagement. We never saw an instance 
of their coming to close quarters. The fact that 
their destroyers never dared to try an attack on 
our base affords ample proof that they lacked this 
feeling for the glory of an honourable deith. Of 
course there \\( ic two or three instances of bravery 

( 23) 



on their part, but it was a forced valour. 

On the whole the Kussians value their lives 
and fear death too much, and for that reason 
alone they were foiled and checkmated in the re- 
cent war. Perhaps you saw that the situation 
necessitated your pushing yourself to the front, and 
taking direct command of your subordinates 
so as to encourage them and spur them on to suf- 
ficient activities. Our officers and men did not 
need much teaching in that line. Our torpedo 
boats went to the attack with shouts of Banzai. 
Our sailors undertook to block the harbour mouth 
in the teeth of a hostile fire with the utmost 
coolness, and under the hottest cannonade be- 
haved as if on parade. All these things were 
exactly what you advocated. You may well have 
been envious of this before your death. The moral 
education of officers and men was a matter oh 
which you felt most deeply. Believing with 
Napoleon that military success depends three 
fourths on the moral element and one fourth only 
on material conditions, you said, " We ought to 
reverence the opinions of such an authority on 
tactics or strategy as Napoleon. It is a well- 
known fact that he devoted the greatest care to 
fostering and maintaining the spirit of his troops. 
Now it is a matter of the highest importance in 
t-he navy to tend and keep up the courage of the 

(24) 



men, which is the keV to the successml accom- 
phshinent of the tasks laid upon them all from 
the admiral down to common seamen, blatters of 
diplomacy may well bo entrusted to those re- 
sponsible for such affairs, but the duty of inspir- 
ing the troops and of maintaining their courage- 
ous spirit must be attended to with due care and 
consideration by those whose duty it is to train 

But what were your feelings when you first 
came to Port Arthur as commander-in-chief of the 
shattered fleet there, and saw that it was a mere 
skeleton fi-om which the spirit was already fled. 
It is perfectly clear that you felt the urgent 
necessity of inspiring the personnel with courage, 
and attempted to revive and restore their spirit. 
At the same time you assiduously superintended 
the repair of the shattered war-ships, and the re- 
st oration of their flghting power. 

KSometimes you made tours of inspection 
outside the harbour on board a destroyer, and 
sometimes made a swoop on our fleet in a small 
fast ship, thus taking every possible means of 
quickening the waiiike spirit of your officers and 
men. 

We specially remember how at dawn on March 
the 10th you despatched five or six destroyevs 
against our first destroyer flotilla, on which occa- 

(25 ) 



sion they made such a bold fight that then^ sides 
almost touched those of our ships. This was 
really the outcome of your endeavours to inspire 
your own subordinates, and though forced to re- 
treat back to the harbour after a signal defeat 
their daring elicited our hearty admiration. Such 
manifestations of a spirit of energy could be 
nothing but the product of encouragement you 
gave them. But for your presence their destroyers 
would have hibernated within the harbour, mere 
ornaments. On the same day, when the first 
division continued the bombardment of Port Arthur 
from the direction of Laotieshan, our 4th Division 
happened to be in the ofiing, and you emerged 
from the harbour on the Novik, accompanied by 
the Bayan, to attack it. For a long time we 
watched each other's ensigns flying at the mast 
heads, but the range was too great, and, to our 
great regret, we parted without firing a shot. 
Perhaps your thus devoting yourself to the inspira- 
tion of your officers and men by cruising outside 
the harbour, exercising in evolutions from time to 
time, was your preparation against the last decisive 
battle which you intended to fight when it could 
be no longer avoided. But your end came too 
soon. When our 3rd Division reached the entrance 
to the harbour of Port Arthur on the morning of 
April 13th, you bore down upon us on the Petro- 

( 26 ) 



pavlosk at the head of a squadron of seven war- 
ships. Seeing our division fire and retreat, you 
entered upon an eager pursuit, but when our 
1st Division was sighted a long way off you 
hastily turned your bows towards the harbour 
again. In the course of the retreat your flag- ship 
struck on a mechanical mine laid by us, and was 
at once bloAvii up and sunk. You perished then 
with your staff, oul\- six officers and thirty-two 
petty officers and men surviving the disaster. 
Thus in the end your long- cherished plans and 
ideas proved mere bubbles, l^robably you did not 
look upon our shrewd operations as deceitful, 
though most of your countrymen have hurled that 
im just accusation a. uai list us. You may have been 
conscious that the recent faihu'cs of the Russians 
were due to unpreparedness on their part, and we 
believe you realized that the tactics of the Japanese 
divisions were far superior to those of yours. 

As we consider the boldness of your enter- 
prises your fate becomes even more worthy of our 
sympathy. Torpedoing was your favourite line, 
and your name as a master of tlie art lias been 
renoAvned cxcr siiu-c yon jithx-kcd ^nid sunk the 
Turkish war-ships with torpedoes twenty-six years 
ago. Now, however, a torpedo laid by us caused the 
loss of your own life, which was more valuable than 
the whole fleet at Port Arthur. Your perisliing 

(27 ) 



thus in the sea excites our pity all tlie more, be- 
cause you had no chance to meet death in active 
fighting with us, though the fate of your fleet had 
already been sealed. Maybe it is an inexhausti- 
ble source of regret with- you too. We can see 
your noble person no more. The circumstauces in 
which you were placed rouse our deep sympathy, 
foeman though you were. May you rest in peace 
forever, though your sorrow be incurable. In 
Japan then hostile to your country, you now have 
friends. You are truly one of the great ones of 
this world. We humbly offer this tribute to your 
spirit. 



i 28 ) 



CHAPTER III. 

THE BATTLE OFF ULSAN. 

» 

At 5 a.m. on Aug. 14th in the 37th year of Meiji, 
a calm clear morning, we received, apparently 
from the flag- ship Idzumo a wireless message that 
the enemy's vessels were in sight, and thereupon 
our ship the Naniwa started with all haste to join 
the main body of the Second Squadron. 

On the way the call to quarters was made 
according to the prearranged plan of action. 

At 5.20 we observed streaks of smoke rising 
to the N.W. of our bows, and then about the same 
quantity on the N.N.W. of our starboard bow. 
The animating sight of red flashes seen through 
the early morning haze made it evident the two 
squadrons were exchanging hostile fire, but we 
could not yet make out which was our fleet, and 
which the enemy's. Within ten minutes, however, 
we recognized the three ships straight ahead as 
the enemy's vessels from Vladivostok, and set 
a course to join our 2nd Division, running up 
our ensign at 5.40, when we were about 10,000 
metres off. 

At this juncture the Rossia, Gromoboi and 



Burik were in single column of line of battle 
ahead and steering a course almost parallel with 
ours. 

By 5.45 we had approached a little nearer, 
and fired our first shot at the Eurik, which replied 
at once with the guns of her after battery, several 
of her missiles flying jast over us. As, however, 
the distance between us increased, we ceased fire 
for a while, and making for the unengaged side of 
our 2nd Division, ordered the men to breakfast. 

By 6.35 we again neared the enemy a little, 
and all hands resuming action quarters, we reopen- 
ed fire. At this point we observed the enemy to 
be staggering under the severe cannonade of our 
2nd Division, and their formation began to 
break, the Eurik lagging behind. At 6.42 a fierce 
conflagration broke out on the laggard ship, and 
for a while she was enveloped in clouds of black 
smoke, but twenty -six minutes later the flames 
appeared to have been got under. 

During the great fire her guns never ceased 
working, to our deep admiration ; but finally she 
was unable to keep pace with her companion 
ships, who manoeuvred as if to afford her protec- 
tion. 

Both squadrons had a good turn of speed, 
and it was an indescribably thrilling and animat- 
ing sight to watch the ever varying movements 

(30) 



of the parties to this fierce action, and the thou- 
sand and one ways in which they changed position, 
now engaging, now disengaging, threading their way 
in and out in a veritable dance of death. 

Amidst the thunder of the guns, and the 
small water spouts caused by the plumping of 
shot into the sea, l)ot]i fleets manoeuvred in the 
boldest and yet most delicate manner. Despite 
the heavy damage they had suffered, the enemy 
struggled vaHantly for their fellow ship, and 
succeeded in landing a shot on to our flag- ship, 
whereupon an ominous cloud of smoke ascended 
from her, which made us all tremble. 

At this juncture, 7.15, the movements of our 
2nd Division were really superb : our shells 
had set the Russian flag- ship on fire, a sheet of 
flame being visible issuing from her forecastle ; 
but enveloped in a whirlwind of fire she forged 
ahead, followed by the Gromoboi, botli of them 
forming a column in hue ahead. Our ships form- 
ed up in a T shape and poured in a concentrated 
fire from the whole line ; this exciting incident 
causing all who witnessed it to burst into hurrahs 
and exclamations. 

We on the Naniwa always did our best to 
avoid hampering the o^x^rations of the Second 
Squadron, and whenever we came too near to the 
enemy, orders were given for a feeble fire so as 

(31 ) 



to check their movement, whilst waiting for the 
fateful moment of the battle. 

At 7.50 the Takachiho joined the line of 
battle, thus strengthening the 4th Division. 

The Kurik was now undergoing the last 
terrible attack of the 2nd Division. Abandoned 
by her fellow ships, she had a slight list to the 
port, was a little down by the stern, and indeed 
seemed disabled and deprived of some of her 
fighting power. 

Considering now at 8.30 that the time was 
ripe, the Takachiho and Naniwa took the decisive 
step of attacking her. One of our sighting shots 
hit her amidships and we pressed on concentrat- 
ing our whole fire upon her. The Rossia and 
Gromoboi turned as if intending to cover the 
Rurik, but were checkmated by our 2nd Divi- 
sion, which met and engaged them. We on 
our part had quite believed the Rurik to be dis- 
abled, but contrary to our expectations she began 
to move at a speed of about 12 knots an hour, 
and bore down upon us still managing to keep 
up a continuous fire from more than 5 guns. In 
a short time however she fell away as though 
not quite under full control. 

At 9.10 our two ships bore away to the 
starboard, and attacked at her closer quarters, and 
five minutes later one of her 5J inch shells hit the 

( 32 ) 



forward bridge of the Naiiiwa, shattering the 
shield on the larboard side. 

Manjiro Sakano a leading seaman, and Bunr 
sliiro Shibata, an able seaman and a gunner, met 
witli glorious deaths while Tetsunosuke Naka- 
mura leading seaman, and Sataro Ito ordinary 
seaman, were severely wounded. 

Luckily for us the explosive power of the 
shell was veiy low, and no more serious casual- 
ties were caused. On the bridge a few feet away 
were Admiral Uriu in command of the division 
and Staff Capt. Moriyama, whilst on the bridge 
stood our Captain Wada, and gunnery Lieutenant 
Kobayashi. Several spUnt^rs actually passed be- 
tween the Captain and the Gunnery Lieutenant, 
sliivcring the compass stand, and it was the 
greatest good fortune for Admiral Uriu and the 
others that no further damage was done. 

From the very first, in this phase of the 
battle we pressed the enemy closer and closer, 
and the effect of our spherical shells increased 
with the proportionate decrease in distance, while 
as we reached the nearest point the precision of 
our fire became greater. Naturally on the other 
hand the accuracy of the hostile fire increased 
also. For instance one of their shells hit the 
Naniwa in the mizzen mast, and a flying splinter 
struck my right epaulette, raising a round swell- 

(S3) 



ing underneath full of extravasatecl blood, and 
the size of a go stone. A second splinter cut 
through my left shoe but did not reach the foot. 
Another shot pierced the side of the Takachiho 
but luckily did not cause much damage, while 
we on the contrary had the pleasure of seeing a 
shot of ours crash into the mizzen mast head 
of one of the enemy's ships, break it off in the 
middle, and leave only the stump standing. More- 
over the increasing destructiveness of our fire 
upset their formation, for when one of them was 
hit, a dense cloud of smoke would arise which 
had the effect of completely shrouding the ship 
from sight for a time. When our shells struck 
the side armour just by the water line they 
would explode with fearful force producing flashes 
of red fire easily seen from our ships, while the 
splinters, flying off into the sea, made ripples 
which shimmered like lightning and had a peculiar 
lustre. Every thing taken together formed a 
wonderful, and even delightful sight. 

By this time the Naniwa and Takachiho 
had fought with the Kurik for over an hour 
and a half. Her gims were silenced by our 
rain of shells, and her crew began to jump over- 
board. 

Our 2nd Division, which had turned its 
attention to the Eossia and Gromoboi, leaving 

(34) 



the Rurik to lis, was nowliere to be seen, and 
had evidently steamed northward in pursuit of 
the Russians. 

At 10.5 we stopped firing altogether and 
perceived that the Rurik's flag was no longer 
flying, as if her powers of resistance were ex- 
hausted, and she had ceased the fire. She was 
considerably down by tbe stern, and most of her 
crew abandoned her, leaping into the sea, as 
though awaiting our aid. 

As the Naniwa slowly approached, the Russian 
ship sunk deeper and deeper at the stern, and 
when the water reached her quarter deck, canted 
suddenly to the left, reared up with her nose in 
the air, then heeled and disappeared forever at 
10.40 a.m. exactly. 

The dauntless way in which she sustained 
her fire to the last, and went to the bottom when 
all other means of preserving her honour were 
lacking, was a true warrior's deed, and one 
worthy of undying admiration. 

The Ulsan ofling which a few miimtes before 
was the scene of a fierce battle, and echoed with 
the thunder of hostile guns, now returned to its 
normal autimin state, calm, clear and smooth ; 
and tlie Russian sailors drifting on the surface of 
the water reminded us rather of sea-gulls enjoy- 
ing the perfect liberty afforded by the ocean. A 

(35 ) 



contrast indeed with the desperate and exciting 
scene just closed. 

As soon as the Rurik went down, Admiral 
Uriu gave orders for as many of the helpless 
men as possible to be taken in, and the Naniwa 
and Takachiho set to work to rescue them with 
their boats, the Niitaka, Tsushima, Chihaya and 
torpedo craft joining in the work of humanity* 
The 2nd Division too now returned from their 
pursuit of the Rossia and Gromoboi. 

The Russian prisoners taken in on board the 
Naniwa were four officers, and 129 petty officers 
and men, the number rescued by all our ship^ 
reaching over 600. 

When our transports the- Hitachi Maru and 
Sado Maru were sunk by Russian war- ships, they 
cruelly fired on our soldiers who were drifting 
over the sea without any means of resistance, 
and yet our squadron saved almost all their men 
in the most generous manner. This we commend 
to the world at large as a noble piece of hum- 
anity. 



(36) 



CHAPTER IV. 

HOW THE RURIK WAS SUNK OFF ULSAN. 

After Father Alexis, the Russian chaplain on 
board the Rurik, was released at Saseho he made 
the following statement about the naval battle of 
Ulsan. 

*' In the afternoon of Aug. 12th, Admiral 
Jessen — in command vice Admiral Bezobrazof 
sick — ^was commanded to emerge from Vladivostok 
on his flag-sliip the Rossia, accompanied by the 
Rurik and Gromoboi. Each (^f these three ships 
was completely prepared for action and left the 
naval port of Vladivostok at 5 a.m. the next day. 
The squadron steamed south at the standard 
speed of 16 knots throughout tliat day. At 4 a. 
m. on the 14th tlie Rurik sighted four steamers 
coming towards us, and in a little over twenty 
minutes, tliey were recognized as the armoured 
cruisers Idziuno, Adzumn, Tokiwa and Iwate. 
The call to quarters was at once made in each 
of our ships, mimI wc ;i\vjiited the approach of 
the enemy fully prepared." (According to a pris- 
oner's story, in this sudden encounter some of 
the officers took u]) their action stations in tlieir 



iji<i,ht clothes. How thoii can lie say that they 
were fully prepared ? ) 

" The outer armour of tlie Rurik, except for 
that of the engine room, wfis weak, and there 
was a great difference between tlie fighting power 
of our two complet('l\' Mvmoured ships, and that 
of the four hostile vcsscU. In spite of this our 
admiral prc^ssed on (lie enemy, and challenged 
them to battle." (The Japanese squadron then 
lay to the north and the Yhiclivostok squadron to 
the soutli. The latter att(']n|)h'd to (^scnp(^ north- 
wards, but we checked their lliglit ;nid thoy were 
thus i'oicod to fight with us.) " At this juncture 
tlie JnprnK!S(^ squadron bore down upon us in lino. 
abreast (Wo know nothing of this), wliik^ we 
proceeded towards tliem in line ahead in the order 
of the llossin, (Iromoboi and Rurik. When the 
distance Ix'lwccn the two pjirties was reduced to 
about four knots, the JfipMiicso Commander-in- 
chief turned ;i littk^ to the west: oiii' squadron 
liowovoi* ])i'osei*Yed the same course, formation and 
speed. The enemy turned more and more to the 
west and formed a single column in line ahead, 
in the order of the Idzumo, Iwate, Adzuma and 
Tokiwa." (He is mistaken here.) 

"A cloudless dny hnd already dawned over 
th(^ quiet oeenii, when at 4.45 the enemy fii*ed the 
first shot, tluf two squadrons sfeerinu niniost 

( 38 ) . 



parallel to each other, separated by a distance of 
about three knots. The battle was now opened, 
and we fought valiantly with oiii' sides just op- 
posite those of the Japanese ships, as we entered 
the proper range. Until 9 a.m. both squadrons 
made the most complicated evolutions, sometimes 
turning to the right, and sometimes wheeling to 
the left, all without the- slightest disturbance of 
their fei'iiuttioiis, just <is though they IkkI been 
at their ordinary manceuvres." (Their measure- 
ment of time varies slightly from ours as the two 
squadrons had different standards). " During these 
four hours the engagement became fiercer and 
fiercer, and the Kurik receixed innumerable shots 
from the enemy, but in nifniy cHses eiir shells 
hit them too. 

'' In the first stage of the battle Lieutenant 
Stackelberg, (commander of the Rurik) fell by a 
shot from the enemy while in cluuge of the bat- 
tery. He was the first of our officers to be killed, 
and soon after his death our senior lieutenant was 
killed also. At 7 a.m. (Japtain Oesaff was struck 
in the face by several splinters and fell to the 
ground severely woundtHl. No sooner did I see 
this than I ran down to the lower deck, and 
r('turiie(1 ;it once to the bi'i(1;j<' wifli ji dj-essin^ in 
my hand. Tlie poor CnptHin was, howevei-. again 
sfruek by splinters from a shell win'eh hit the 

. (39) 



bridge. His body was simply pulverized, pieces 
of flesh and spots of blood being all that was 
lefb. As our Commander, Senior Lieutenant, and 
Captain were thus killed one after another, our 
torpedo Lieutenant Jeniroff took command of the 
whole ship in their place. Up to this time from 
the opening of the action our casualties had been 
very high. 

" At 9 a.m. as our squadron was about to 
take a port turn, the Eurik, at the rear of the 
column, was struck in the after part by a big 
shell which smashed her steering gear. The 
rudder remained in its place but could not be 
moved an inch, and the Kurik which had hitherto 
been steaming at full speed, now did notliing but 
revolve round and round in the same position. 

" As we were unable to follow the rest of 
the squadron, we tried a hand wheel, but in vain, 
and the water was pouring into the rudder room 
below the water line, which was already nearly 
full. The only way to extricate the ship from 
this difficulty was to break off the rudder, which 
was now immovable, and steer by means of the 
propeller. At the order to repair the damage, our 
carpenter proceeded to don a diving suit, but by 
way of increasing our troubles he was laid low 
by a shot from the enemy, which caused his in- 
stantaneous and miserable death. 

( 40 ) 



** Perceiving our distress to be the best time 
for their attack the enemy concentrated their fire 
npon us, and tlie Rurik now became the centre of 
a tornado of fire from 40 or 50 hostile guns. The 
Rossia and Gromoboi saw this, and turned back 
at once to cover us under their wing, as it were. 
In this way we tried to get time for our hehn 
repairs, but our trouble* was deeper than could 
\ye cured thus. 

" For about lialf an liour our two ships, as 
yet undamaged, fought hard with the enemy's 
four, but just then the Naniwa and Takachiho 
came in sight and drew nearer and nearer. See- 
ing this new reinforcement, and realising the 
impossibility of saving the Kurik, our admiral 
decided to let her go. The Gromoboi was at 
once ordered to withdraw at full speed ahead and 
the Rossia stccicil to the north, the Gromoboi 
following her example, making off at a speed of 
more than twenty knots. The main force of the 
Japanese squadron then poured in a terrific fire 
on us, and at once began to pursue the fugitives. 

** As soon as this main force had left and 
ceased to direct their Nk upon us, the Naniwa 
and Takacliiho drew near and showered their 
shells on us with a fury that left us dumbfounded, 
while the four larger .Tn])nnese ships steamed 
noiih in hot pursuit of nm -quadron. The guns 

(41) 



on the Eurik had by now been so damaged by 
tlie concentrated fire of the enemy, that more 
than half of them were nseless ; nevertheless we 
had to face the merciless attack of the Naniwa 
and Takachiho. 

The scene on board became more and more 
miserable every moment. Om' torpedo lieutenant 
had already fallen and lieutenant Iwanof, though 
still quite a young man, took command of the 
whole ship. Our new captain saw the uselessness 
of fighting with guns, and tried to take the decisive 
step of ramming the enemy, but the Japanese 
squadron manoeuvred very cleverly, and always 
kept astern of us, their fierce fire not giving us 
even a moment's respite to attend to the repair of 
our helm. All the guns on board were smashed 
except one, but the brave lieutenant kept on firing 
as long as there were any shells left to be fired. 
Mild any gun fit for use. Soon the shells were 
exhausted, and every other means failed us together 
with the hope of our relief. In this extremity 
(It was about 11 a.m. according to his note here) 
we noticed the Niitaka, Tsushima and five Japanese 
torpedo boats hastening towards us. 

" Our new captain was a cool-headed but 
gallant young man, and searched once more to 
see if there were no gun on board fit for use. 
Finding nothing but dismounted guns lying belp- 

( 42 ) 



less among the heaps of corpses, Lieutenant Iwa- 
nof commanded the ship to be blown up and sunk» 
and on being informed that not even a fuse was 
left on the ship, every thing being smashed to 
atoms, ordered tlie sea valves to be opened. 

" At the same time hv bade the unwounded 
men tie up tlie woimded in their hammocks and 
throw them overboard." <(The Russian navy liam- 
mocks are so made that they may be used as 
substitutes for life-buoys). This was done because 
they asked for tlieir lives to be saved by any 
means. The work was at once put in hand, and 
on its completion all unwoxmded survivors were 
ordered to jump into tlu^ sea with their own 
hammocks. Our ship was now rapidly sinking 
from the aftei* })art. 

'* At tliis last moment all the iniwounded 
oflScers gathered togetlier on the bridge, and were 
found to consist of two engineers, Tjieutenant Iwanof, 
a probationer (cousin to the seniin* lieutenant al- 
ready killed) and myself, only live in all. Shortly 
l)efore the ship capsized we all escaped into tlie 
sea, but the probationer was a little late in leav- 
ing and was killed by a blow tVoni the funnel of 
the sinking Rurik. 

" The vessel had been sinking rapidly from 
her stern, and when the sea water rushed into 
lier engine room the listed heavily to port ; then 

(43 ) 



the ship's bottom was seen above the surface of the 
water, and she foundered immediately at 2.15 p.m." 
(This is a bhmder in the time on his part, prob- 
ably the effect of the heavy shock of prolonged 
and severe fighting). 

" The whirlpools raised on the sea by the 
sinking of a big war- ship of more than 10,000 
tons were appalling. No one who witnessed the 
scene could ever forget it. In the meantime our 
men were drifting over the sea, the majority 
wounded, some with their feet taken off, some 
wounded in the back, and others with their heads 
dressed. Our surviving officers and men — 600 in 
all — raised loud and gallant cheers when they were 
about to be buried in the ocean with their sliip. 

" We fought to the very last. We did our 
utmost. The Kurik was not surrendered into the 
enemy's hands, and thus on our part there is not 
the slio'htest shade of reo;ret." 



(44) 



CHAPTER V. 

THE BATTLE OF THE SEA OF JAPAN. 

"A quarter to five, Commander; all hands 
on deck in fifteen minutes." On the morning of 
May 27th 1905 I was thus awakened by the 
voice of a sentry. I jumped up immediately, and 
washed my face and teeth ; I am a slovenly fel- 
low, and when the ship was on the alert never 
took off my clothes at night, so I left my cabin 
at once, and indulging myself in the infinite 
pleasure of a pipe, went up to the bridge and 
collected all the officers of the watch. 

When the hammocks were stowed I gave 
orders for all hands, seamen and carpenters, to 
raise the torpedo nets. Just as I gave the final 
instmctions the officers on duty reported " all well." 

At the very moment the nets were toucliing 
the ship's sides the midshipman of the watch 
came rimning up to say that a wireless message 
reported the enemy in sight. It was exactly 
fifteen minutes past five by my watch, and tlu^ 
signal was already flying from tlie flag- ship order- 
ing us to prepare to leave the port at once. The 
nets were stowed forthwith and every tiling made 



ready for that purpose, while part of the ship 
which had resumed its ordinary condition was 
cleared for action. 

Every man on board was eager and prompt 
in doing his allotted duty in a way not to be 
imagined on ordinary days, and almost instanta- 
neously every preparation was made against the 
Russian fleet for which we had waited so lono-. 

The vedette boats and steam launches which 
were temporarily anchored in some place more 
suitable for them, received the command to join and 
came back at fall speed, evidently considering it 
would be a lifelong shame to them to be behind 
time for tliis battle which was big with the fate 
of Japan. Their hands were ordered to come up 
leaving their craft at anchor near the ships. 

All around us our vessels were emitting 
clouds of black smoke, and the fleet presented 
a more than usually grand appearance, which in 
our eyes already overwhelmed the Russians. 

Soon the outermost ships began to move. 
The flag- ship Mikasa, which was rather late in 
coming up, took the lead of the column, and our 
fleet formed up in the order of the Shikishima, 
Fuji, Asahi, Kasuga and Nisshin. We proceeded 
out of port over a tumbling sea, and made for 
the Eastern Channel of the Tsushima Straits, 
there to annihilate the Baltic fleet at a blow. 

( 46 ) 



On our way I cliaiited a song of my ewu 
composition, 

" Sasliinoboru asalii kagayaku kilioi nite, 

Iza kudakanan tsuyu no adafime." 
E'en as the splendour of the Rising Sun, 

And raging storms dispel the morning dew, 
So shall the triiunph l)y our vessel won 

Scatter the llussiaiif ships and all their crew. 
The Idzumo, oue of our scouts, reported to us 
every moment by means of wireless telegraphy 
the formation and course of the Russian war-sliips, 
and by now their approach was beyond doubt. 
The one chance in the world had come for us, 
and the hearts of all officcis jiikI men beat high 
with joyful corn-age and daring. 

The process of clearing for action was every- 
where coTnplete. " Let 'em come on when they 
like " — and om* officers gathered together by the 
after barbette, chatting over the tobacco tra}'. 

The commander brought out a box of cigars, 
with wliich he had been presented by H. I. H. 
Prince Komatsu as a gift from His Majesty, and 
distributed them among the officers to celebrate 
the victory awaiting them. First class Sub-lieuten- 
ant Morisliita was the only man who did not 
smoke. 

The commander urged liim to smoke a cigar 
wliich came from such an honourable som-ce, as 

(47 ) 



it might bring him good fortmae in battle, and 
when he insisted upon declining it, Lieutenant 
Hatano said chaflSngly " If you don't take it 
gladly, perhaps you will be the first to fall to- 
day." Sad to relate this jesting prophesy proved 
true. 

While enjoying the excellent cigars we had 
the pleasure of listening to the phonograph, and 
thus amused ourselves while awaiting the encounter 
with the enemy. 

At this time a strong south-westerly wind 
was blowing, and a high and angry sea dashed 
against the ships' sides causing them to roll 
heavily. It was not easy to open the ports even 
on the main deck. 

Delighted though we were at the idea of 
meeting the enemy soon we prayed for a calmer 
sea. Moreover the weather was so foggy that 
our limit of view was Rye knots. More than 
once in critical moments of our history storms 
upon the western, seas have proved helpful to 
Japan, the most notable instance of which was 
at the time of the Mongol invasion of Kyushiu 
in 1281. This storm was designated Kamikaze — 
the divine storm — as if it had been called up by 
Providence. 

Now once more, strange to say, it was rough 
weather which forced the Eussians into positions 

( 48 ) 



unfavourable to them from the outset of the bat- 
tle. We soon passed north of Tsushima but our 
toi-pedo craft had to fall out of line, the weather 
being too heavy for them, and they left us to take 
shdtcr. 

At 1.36 the liussian fleet showed up to the 
west of Okinoshima. Admiral Rcdjestvensky's flag- 
ship Kniaz Souvaroff led the column, followed by 
the Alexander III., Borodino, Orel, Osliabia — from 
which flew Admiral Folkersam's flag — Sissoi Yehki, 
Navarin, Nachimoff, Nicolai I. (on board which 
was Xebogatoff*) Apraxin, Senyavin, and OushakofF 
in the order stated. The rest could not be seen 
in the fog. It was really a grand fleet of war- 
ships forming a grey line from which the light 
blue funnels showed up in distinct contrast. It 
steamed towards us vahantly. The Baltic fleet 
of the Russian Empire which was now to contend 
with us in the most desperate engagement, and 
one momentous in its consequences to the destiny of 
the two nations, w^as equal to us in the number of the 
ships, superior in battleships and their main arma- 
ment of twelve inch gims, but inferior in armoured 
cruisers and eight inch guns. At 1.40 the flag-ship 
Mikasa changed course towards the enemy's fleet 
so as to check their onward progi^ess and at the 
same time Admiral Togo hoisted high at the 
mnst-hcad his memorable signal : — " The rise or 

(49) 



fall of the Empire depends upon the result of 
this engagement ; do your utmost, every one of 
you." 

Every man and officer in the fleet read it 
calm and self-possessed ancl without a trace of 
heady excitement. 

At 2.7 the liussians opened the ball with a 
brisk shower of shells, but the range being too long, 
most of them fell into the sea, no doubt to the 
surprise of the marine gods. Oar fleet held on 
for about six minutes perfectly disciplined to 
proceed under the hottest fire, and at 2.13 the 
flag- ship Mikasa discharged the first gun. There- 
after every position we took had the one purpose 
in view of directing our fire on the enemy, and 
thus at length the curtain was raised on the 
naval battle so long eagerly anticipated. 

What with smoking guns and belching funnels 
the ocean was darkened ; solid pillars of water 
shot up where shells struck the sea, and the 
thunder of the cannon was deafening. The enemy's 
fire, however, lacked precision, and whether from 
nervousness due to lack of experience, or want 
of discipline, few of our ships sustained any 
damage from it. On the other hand the accuracy 
of our gunners was such that the clouds of black 
smoke caused by our bursting shells were num- 
berless. 

(50) 



As the combat deepened I left the after 
bridge on a torn* of inspection l)oginning with tlie 
upper deck, and was liighly pleased to observe 
that the gun crews were as cool as at ordinary 
firing practice. 

After my round on the main, I descended to 
tlie lower deck, and fell in forward with a crowd 
of men Imrriedly carrying buckets of water ; a 
clear sign of some imtoward occurrence. I was 
a little disturbed at this confusion, and asked 
what they were doing. Without ceasing work 
they briefly replied, " Carrying water to the 12 inch 
turret." I suspected that a fire caused by the 
enemy's sliclls had broken out there, but troubled 
myself no further and went astern. As I was 
ascending to the upper deck I heard a most ter- 
rific explosion from its after part ; fragments of 
wood and sphnters of sliells were scattered here and 
there, and the wounded men prostrated amid the 
havoc. Turning my eyes starboard I saw the 
iron plates twisted, and bloody hands and feet 
and mutilated corpses lying on the deck. Not a 
soul was left alive. Tlien a seaman came down 
from the shelter deck carrying in liis arms First- 
class Sub-lieutenant Morisliita. His subordinate 
officer also escoi-ted the wounded man, which caused 
me to give the former a sharp reprimand. " Whose 
duty is it to control the fire when the group 

(51 ) 



leader is killed ?" As if brought to the con- 
sciousness of his own duty the young officer then 
ran back to his place in the battery. 

It was quite natural for a young officer to 
leave his post on such an occasion, for it would 
be pretty hard for him to pay no attention 
to Ms senior thus killed in action ; but the 
position of the battle called for stoicism from the 
officers. 

I called out to Morishita, " Fifth Lieutenant, 
Fifth Lieutenant!" but received no reply. His fore- 
head was not yet cold when I laid my hand 
upon it, and he still seemed to breathe faintly, 
so I went off to enHst stretcher men and had 
him sent at once to the dressing station. 

I then went up to the starboard shelter deck 
and found the shield of the 12 pounder had been 
pierced by a Russian shot. I was puzzled to know 
where to step as the shattered deck Avas bestrewn 
with pieces of human flesh and besmeared with 
fresh blood, whilst mutilated hands and feet and* 
human bowels were scattered everywhere. Calling 
together the unengaged men near about I ordered 
them to remove the remains. They all hesitated 
to undertake such a task, so I set the example 
with my own hands, upon which they followed 
me. It was 2.40 when aU these corpses were 
disposed of, and the issue of the day had already 

( 52 ) 



been decided at the first engagement of the main 
forces of the two fleets. 

At 3.17 our 1st Division concentrated tlieir 
whole fire on the van of the enemy's main 
squadron, who then made a starboard turn to 
avoid it, and we thereupon directed the shells 
from (»iir port battery straight to the point at 
which tliey changed their course, and a splendid 
exhibition of accurate gunnery was given. 

Before this the Russian flag- ship Osliabia 
liad a fire on board, and was seen to leave the 
line with her forecastle somewhat submerged. In 
this second combat the enemy's fleet was practi- 
cally defeated, and Hod jest vensky's flag- ship the 
Souvaroff burst into flames and stood alone out 
of the line at 3.23 p.m. 

After the second attack we lost sight of the 
Ilia ill force of the Russian fleet, whicli, witli the 
exception of tlie flag- ship for a time standing 
alone, was enveloped in gini and coal smoke. As 
it was the best time io find out how many shots 
we ]iJid fired, I gavo okU'is to tliat effect to every 
batlny commander. Happt^ning to sec First-class 
Sub-lieutenant Goda I bad(^ him give the same 
instuctions to his lieutenant, but his answers were 
all beside the ])()inf. I a<ke(l him ni^ain aloud if 
lie had l)een deafened by tlie shock of the gims, 
and he made no reply. Being much displeased 

( 53 ) 



at this I left him but my anger changed into pity 
when I heard that he had the tympanum broken 
by a shot fired off close to his ear in the first 
engagement. Soon after this incident I took 
another tour of inspection through the batteries 
when I was unanimously greeted with " Best 
congratulations, Commander." And certainly we 
were to be congratulated on the issue of that 
day's battle. Similar greetings were exchanged 
all over the ship ; we felt as if it were New 
Year's Day. The next duty I undertook was to 
visit the wounded at the dressing station on the 
lower deck. Some of tliem who had had their 
throats shot througli and could scarcely breathe, 
yet cried out faint Banzais, Some were uncon- 
cious with shattered arms and torn mouths, and 
one while his wounds were being attended to, 
cried out to me " Commander, I am hit." 

As I turned away I could not but say to 
him " You are the evanescent flower of the warrior 
spirit in full bloom." 

At 4.30 our main force defiled before the 
Souvaroff' concentrating their fire upon her. As 
she had been half disabled and now received tlio 
whole broadside from our main division, she was at 
once entirely enveloped in a black mass of smoke. 
Great fires broke out on board, and* a few minutes 
later we saw a fearful and ominous cloud of 

( 54 ) 



black smoke, whilst steam vomited forth, as if 
her boilers had exploded. 

As I was exceedingly anxious to take a pic- 
ture of this awful scene I was delighted to find 
some one standing near me with a camera. When 
I brought him up and pointed out the Scuvaroff 
to him lie began to take a photograph with gre it 
pride. We thought the picture would be the 
mrest treasure, as preserving the scene of the 
dire catastophe to the Hag-ship of the Baltic fleet. 
His joy and pride in taking it can easily be 
imagined. Wlien, however, the lAntv whs developed 
after the engagement we found notliing on it but 
the picture of the hammocks u^i^d toi* the pro- 
tection of the bridge, for he h?i(l made a gross 
l)hmder in focussing the camerii. hWim the hurly- 
burly of fire in whicli we stood could not ofTer 
sufficient excuse for such a mistake ; but still we 
could not help cheering the result and laughing at it. 

At 5.8 I saw our torpedo bo-it destroyers 
rushing on to attack^ the Souvaroff, and th(^ un- 
lucky ship was still firing the 12 pounders from 
her after battery botli against tlie destroyers and 
the rest of our fleet. 

Up to the very end tli( Snivaroff" never stop- 
\hh\ fighting and her valour dcscnves our d(^epest 
}idmiration. When we ceased fire on bonrd the 
Asahi a 12 i3ouhder shot from the sinking Souva- 

( o5 ) 



roff hit our foremast and its splinters flew into 
the conning tower causing several casualties. 
Quartermaster K. Yaginuma, whilst engaged in 
steering inside the tower, had his right shoulder 
pierced by one of these splinters. Quite undismay- 
ed he held the wheel in his leffc hand, and asked 
the torpedo lieutenant standing by him to look at 
his shoulder. The latter turned round and inspect- 
ed his wound. It was big enough to put a finger 
in and his face was already paling under the 
severity of the shock. In spite of all, however, he 
held on to the wheel w4th his left hand, keeping 
the ship on her course so as not to hamper her 
evolutions, and waited to be relieved before he 
went to the dressing station. A brilliant example ! 
He merits undying admiration as the model war- 
rior. Whether performed by friend or foe such 
actions deserve to be set up as honourable ex- 
amples to all who follow the calling of w^ar. 

Meanwhile our division once more passed by 
the Souvaroff, delivering a heavy broadside, and 
then again turned towards her. 

At this juncture w^e saw lingering near us a 
Russian auxiliary cruiser the Ural (8278 tons) with 
two masts and three funnels, and directed on 
her the concentrated fire of the whole line of our 
1st Division. 

• At 5.45 a generous shower of 12 inch shells 

( 56 ) 



caused an immediate outbreak of fire, flames and 
smoke spreading all over her. A. funnel collapsed 
and one mast was broken off, to be followed by 
the second, and finally the second and third 
funnels shared tlie same fate. She began to settle 
down into the water stern first as at her launch 
and then vanished altogether. We all shouted 
with joy and clapped our hands with dehght at tlie 
sight of her returning to that state when her keel 
,was not yet laid, or in other words that of non- 
ex- istence. The scene lasted for five minutes 
only and she sunk at 5.50. 

Sicaniing noriliwards in sraich of the main 
force of the Russian fleet we happened to find four 
of them to the N.W. of the Souvaroff, two rather 
close to us, two quite distant. Our division steer- 
ed towards the nearer ones and carried on a run- 
ning fight with them for about an hour. At 7.18 
Borodino, the leader of the Russian column, had a 
great outbreak of fire with flames bursting out 
through lier deck in a thi'illing manner, and our 
flag-sliip Mikasa changed lier course northward, 
the other ships astern following in turn. 

When the Fuji was making the turn she fired 
a shell from a 12 inch giin in her after battery info 
the B()i"<Hliii<), wliicli was now wrappcil in flames. 
It was a splendid straight shot and exploded on 
the ship causing dense masses of smoke to arise. 

( 57 ) 



Then we too turned upon her the 12 inch gun of 
tlie after battery, but seeing that the shells fell a 
trifle short I went astern to warn the men about 
tlie range. In the meantime, however, I was told 
she had blown up, and when I turned my eyes 
towards her saw nothing but clouds of smoke. I 
was unable myself to see how she foundered, and 
marvelled at the speed with which she sunk to 
the bottom. Perhaps, however, it was due to the 
explosion of her magazine. It was just 7.23 now. 
At 7.25 we had orders to withdraw from the engage- 
ment, and our division steamed northwards at 
sunset, when our torpedo craft and destroyers 
flocked around the enemy's ships, occupying the 
situations allotted to each for attack, and biding 
their proper time. 

Our share in the battle of the 27th May 1905 
was thus brought to a close and we had to entrust 
the work of night attack to our torpedo flotilla. 

Winds and waves had become a little calmer, 
and we all gathered together and prayed for a suc- 
cessful issue to their attack. The Russian flag- ship 
Souvaroff was put hors de combat ; the Osliabia 
had left the line in the first stage of the battle 
owing to a great outbreak of fire, and the Borodino 
had undoubtedly exploded and smik. Thus the 
three strongest hostile battleships were put out cf 
action. The other ships were also seriously damag- 

( 58) 



cd, and the whole fleet reduceii to disorder. 
The issue of the battle being absolutely settled 
we felt as if we stood in a spring garden fanned 
by balmy breezes. 

Tsuyu w^a mina liaviii tsiikusliite hana no ka wo^ 

Nodoka ni sasou haru no asakaze. 
Cool moniing breezes on an April day, 

Dispel the gleaming dew with magic breath ; 
Entice the scent from cvciv budding spray, 
And waft it gently over all the mead. 
The sun had already sunk below the horizon which 
became more and more dark. To the far south 
we saw search-lights pbiyinu Ikic and there, ami 
IhjikI the report of guns like distant thunder. 
Kvidciitly our torpedi) Ixnits mihI dcsfioxcrs li;i(! 
Ix^gun their attack. From S to iu p.m. tlie sounds 
were audible, but as we got farther away they 
died out of hearing. We ourselves were busy 
on our own ships making preparations for the 
battle of the next day. Empty cartridge-cases were 
cleared away, provisioujil repairs made of the 
damaged places, and the Mood stains wdiich told 
of oni' bmve fellows kilNil weic wnshed off. 

.M<'!iiIm'i >< of the uiedienl corps were biisy in 
-i\iii;^ proper treatment to lli<' wounded, in ex- 
amining the corpses of the kiUed, and all tlu^ 
otlier affairs consequent on the day's engagement. 
The carpcTiters were engaged in mnking 

( 50 ) 



wooden coffins to contain the corpses and eight 
were finished that night. On examining these I 
considered them too short to hold the corpses. 
Putting myself inside one of them I found that I 
could not lie with my feet stretched out. When I 
asked them why orders were given to make these 
so short I was told it was because of the limit- 
ed accommodation of the crematoria. " If I be 
killed to-morrow, you must make a longer one for 
me " I said with a laugh. 

After all the bodies had been examined they 
were put into these coffins, and their ranks and 
names inscribed thereon, as well as on the ihai 
(tablets), which latter were kept together in a sep- 
arate room. 

A number of men were appointed to keep 
watch all night ; and by the time every thing was 
done it was about 2.30 a.m., at which hour with 
the other officers and men on board I held an in- 
formal service to commemorate those who were 
killed in the battle. 

In my capacity of commander of the Asahi 
I read the following written speech : — 

"In the decisive battle between the Japanese 
and Russian navies we have annihilated the 
enemy's fleet and, by the self-sacrificing efforts 
shown to-day by you all, liave gained a great 
victory. Allow me now to lay before you a line of 

( 60 ) 



verse expressive of the deep admiration and re- 
spect I have conceived for your bravery. 
** Ada wa mina harai tsukushite tatakai no, 

Arashi ni chiru zo hito no hana nam. 
** In that same conflict which dispersed to flight 
Our foe, as by some deatli-fraught tempests' might 
Our bravest sons, hke flowers too fair to last 
Were isti ickcii by the fury of the blast. 
" Your gallant deeds will ever find honour among 
us as models for warriors bright as the morning 
sun in our land of Hinode, Accept here and now 
the tribute of our admiration and reverence." 

Our casualties in the engagement of Feb. 27th 
were as follows with First-class Sub. leiut. Mori- 
shita at the head of the list. 
Killed : 

Leading Seaman Saiken Maeda. 
Able Seamen Yoshimaru Miyazawa. 

Soshichi Sasaki. 
Suketaro Mori. 
Yasutaro Yamamoto. 
Ordinal}' Seaman Motojiro Kawai. 
Mortally wounded : 

Leading Seaman Mataichiro Ueno. 
Able Seaman Yuichiro Suzuki. 

Severely woimded : 

Quarter Master Kuraji Yaginuma. 
Able Seamen Shozaburo Kurauchi. 

( CI ) 



Sliinkichi Kanda. 
besides 18 cases of slight wounds, and 8 of trifling 
hurts. Early on the morning of the 28th May our 
division in company with the second steamed 
towards' Ullodo Island to guard against the enemy 
escaping northward. At 6.5 we received a wireless 
message from our own ships to the effect that 
the Russians were making for the north from 
the south, and at 9.49 to the south west of 
Takeshima we saw five of them, of whom the 
Izumrod, availing herself of her high speed, escaped, 
while the remaining four, the flag- ship Nicholai 
I, the Orel, Apraxin and Senyavin steamed north- 
east. We bore down on them cutting them off 
from the south but they were not, as on the 
previous day, the first to open fire. As soon as 
we got within range we did so and pressed them 
hard, and still there was no resistance. On closer 
observation we found that every one of them was 
hoisting the international signals and carried no 
flag at all on the mast-head. The signals ex- 
pressed the desire to surrender and we suspended 
fire at once. It was utterly beyond our expectations. 
We had opened fire with the strongest determina- 
tion to annihilate them at once, but all in vain, 
for Admiral Nebogatoff surrendered with four big 
war- ships without exchanging even a single shell 
with us. It really was the strangest occurrence, 

( 62 ) 



and we were somewhat' astonished and rather 
disappointed for a while when the 4th and 5th 
Divisions came up in pnrsnit of these self-made 
prisoners, who, completely encircled by us, were 
drifting helplessly in our midst like so many rats 
in a sack, as the saying is. 

The Commander-in-cliief of our combined 
fleets summoned Admiral Nebogatoff on board the 
Hag- ship the Mikasa, and accepted his surrender 
as a prisoner, the above-mentioned four vessels 
being captured at the same time. 

Orders were given me to take possession of 
the Orel and work licr liomo at the head of certain 
commissioned and i^etty officers from the Asahi 
and Kasuga. After the necessary preparations 
had been made I boarded the Orel at 4 p.m. witli 
those appoint<Ki for the job. 
They were as follows : 

Lieutenant Commander Hanchu Nakagawa. 

Lieutenant Shoichi Kawakami. 

Lieutenant Sadao Ilatano. 

Engineer Tsutomu Yoshikawa. 

First-class Sub. Lieut. Kazuma ^Vlaeda. 

First-class Siib. Lieut. Isamu Tanaka. 

First-class Sub. Lieut. llyotaro Kaidzu. 

Second-class Sub. Lieut. Shiro Mitsuya. 

Warrant Officer Takanosukc^ Fujimoto. 

„ „ Toiclii Michioka. 

(63) 



Engine-room Artificer Denjiro Hashiguchi. 

„ „ Shosai Moritsuka. 

besides 196 petty officers and men. 

When I neared the Orel with this prize crew, 
we could see from the outside how greatly she 
was damaged, and at the same time reaHze 
how tremendous had been the power of our fire. 

No sooner had we got on board than I had 
them take down the flag of the sun hoisted at 
the time of their surrender, and unfurl instead the 
ensign we had brought with us. 

When the Baltic fleet left home in October 
of the preceding year His Majesty the Emperor 
of Russia accompanied by the Grand Dukes Alexei 
and Michael visited this ship, and standing on the 
after bridge gave audience to the officers and men 
gathered in the after part. He commanded them 
to avenge the memory of the Yaryag and Coreetz 
on the Japanese, and guard the honour and glory 
of the Russian navy. Now over the self- same 
bridge flew our national sun flag ! 

All the Russian seamen were preparing to 
leave the ship carrying their kit with them as if 
fully determined to surrender themselves. Her 
quarter deck was in great disorder and when I 
passed through to the fore bridge the gunnery 
lieutenant, who was wounded on his breast and 
hand, came to receive me. 

( 64 ) 



He spoke a little English, and when I asked 
him where his captain was, replied that he was 
lying seriously wounded in the sick bay. To my 
question about the commander he answered that 
he had gone to the flag- ship Nicholai. Thus 
far we had understood each other, but this was 
the limit of our mutual powers. Meanwhile other 
oflScers gathered together, but all shook their heads 
when I asked them one by one if they spoke 
English. Just when I was feeling somewhat 
l^erplexed at my inabiUty to make myself under- 
stood, Lieutenant Shinjiro Yamamoto, who was a 
good French scholar, visited .the Orel on a message 
from the Commander-in-chief. Availing myself 
of this good opportunity, I pointed out through 
him to the Russian officers, how the ship was 
to be transferred. 

Before this, however, and as soon as we had 
boarded the vessel, guards had been stationed at 
different posts. Sentries were set over dangerous 
places such as magazines and so on, and a very 
strict watch kept all over the ship. 

Moreover to our officers had been assigned 
respectively the care of the navigation, gunnery 
and torpedo departments, as well as that of the 
engine-room and the hull, and accompanied by 
the Russian officers they were engaged in the busi- 
ness of transference. 

(65) 



Next the dangerous powder and torpedo mag- 
azines were examined ; scattered ammunition cleared 
away ; the sea valves inspected by our engineers 
and stokers, and the engines handed over to them 
in such a way that no hindrance to navigation 
might arise. In fact the utmost precautions were 
taken against dangerous attempts of any kind. 
We also did our best to send the prisoners on 
board the Asahi and Kasuga. Some of these, 
lost to all sense of shame, were reehng about in 
an intoxicated condition, having evidently broken 
into the spirit room and stolen the liquor. Their 
mates had to look after many of them and conse- 
quently all their preparations for leaving the ship 
were slowly made. Besides not only did a high 
sea render embarkation in boats difficult, but also 
the boats themselves were too few for the proper 
conveyance of the prisoners. Meanwhile I began 
a tour of inspection accompanied by a Russian 
surgeon who could speak and understand English 
pretty well, and a messenger from our signal men. 

We passed first through the ward-room where 
we examined the whole number of the wounded 
prisoners, and then went into the sick bay to 
visit ihe seriously wounded captain and other 
damaged officers. 

The captain had been hurt by a splinter during 
the engagement of the 27th, when he was in the 

( 66) 



conning tower, and had been confined to his bed 
ever since, his liead and breast dressed with the 
same blood-stained bandages. He was miserably 
pale and almost unconscious, and the surgeon 
accompanying me said after examining his pulse, 
** Probably he will not Hve until to-morrow morning." 

Besides the captain there were four wounded 
oflScers, all of whom appeared to be slightly hurt 
only. 

The number of casualties was returned as 20 
killed and 47 wounded including petty officers and 
men. I thought it rather strange that the hst was 
so small considering that the ship had suffered so 
severely, with about 40 holes easily visible at a 
glance on the outside, and an almost innumerable 
number inside too. On my asking how it was, 
they explained tliat as a great number of casual- 
ties occurred in the first stage of the battle, their 
gumiers were instructed to fight tlie guns in the 
armoured turrets only, and those engaged at the 
other gims were all made to take shelter on the 
lower deck. For my part I suspected that some 
indeed might have taken shelter under orders, but 
others might have concealed themselves to avoid 
duty on the upper deck. 

After leaving the sick bay we inspected all 
parts of the upper and lower decks. The liigh sea 
running since the previous night made the water 

(67) 



rush in through the shot holes, over some parts of 
the deck so plentifully that we were over our shoes 
in it, and quilts were placed on the deck to make 
a raised causeway for us to pass over. 

The cabins were all shattered, and scarcely 
any habitable rooms were to be found, except 
one on the starboard side in the forward part of 
the main deck ; the ward-room and sick bay in 
the after part, and the admiral's and commander's 
cabins on the lower deck. Every spot on board 
appeared to have been the site of a great fire. 
Forward the corpses had not yet been disposed of 
and their disagreeable smell made us hesitate to 
go there. 

 Shells and cartridge cases were scattered about 
everywhere ; the battered sides showed unexpected 
portholes, and the armour plates bore marks of 
the terribly destructive power of our Shimose power. 
The scene was miserable in the extreme ; more 
especially in the middle part of the upper deck, 
where the vedette boats are carried ; there it was 
really too awful to look at. 

After this inspection I proceeded to the fore 
bridge to hear our officers' account of their exami- 
nation of the parts of the ship to be transferred to 
us. One after another, as they completed their 
survey, reported that, as the Russian officers ac- 
companying them spoke no English, they had been 

(68) 



consequently forced to carry out their examination 
themselves, and in order to conclude the transfer 
had passed those parts that came under their own 
observation as all in order. Our next duty was to 
assign rooms to our officers and men. The com* 
mander's cabin was appointed for the use of our 
staff, and the lUissian officers made to leave it. 
For our petty officers and men the admiral's cabin 
was selected. The uncovered forecastle was set 
apart as sleeping quarters for their petty officers 
and seamen, and as there was no cabin for the 
Russian officers they were ordered to stay with the 
wounded in the ward-room. 

It is true we had now assigned the quarters, 
but as the water had come in and washed right 
over the deck we had to plant out benches or 
drawers on the floor of the cabins, such as the 
commander's, to keep om* feet out of the water, 
and had sometimes even to resort to baling. 

In the midst of all this turmoil the trans- sliip- 
ment of the prisoners was carried out, and before 
sunset we had only been able to transfer 500 of 
them to the Asalii and Kasuga. The intelligent 
and obedient among them vied with one another 
to get on board the two ships, while those who 
remained behind were intoxicated, and proved 
themselves to be the most intractable heroes, bub- 
bling over witli nonsensical speeches, probably 

(09) 



on account of despair having driven them to 
drink. 

About sunset the combined fleet began to get 
into motion, but our engineer considered that he 
had too Httle help to manage the engines properly. 
We were therefore allowed as a matter of expedi- 
ency to employ the prisoners, and ordered the 
Russian chief engineer to retain on board as many 
as possible of his staff. 

But the instructions were not rightly under- 
stood and most of his men went over to the 
Asahi, while it was hard to find whether those 
remaining were stokers or not ; so our men, though 
few in number, undertook to get the engines ready 
for running. 

At sunset the fleet began to move and our 
orders were to follow in the rear of the 1st Divi- 
sion in the order of the Nicolai I., Orel etc. 

On preparing to start the engines we found, 
among other mischiefs, the steam-pipe valves all 
closed, and the safety-valves of the boilers already 
open, or wedged up with pieces of iron so that 
they could not be closed. It took some time to 
put this right, and even then we could not at once 
get the engines turning round so that we were oblig- 
ed to lag behind the main squadron. In these 
ckcumstances the destroyer Usugumo (Lieutenant 
Commander Chukichiro Masuda) was sent to us to 

(70) 



act as convoy. This \\ii> ;i great convenience for 
keeping up communication with the other ships, 
but we could not get much use out of it. 

At 10.20 p.m. we made a trial trip with quite 
satisfactory results, but still there were some leaks 
through which steam escaped. With repeated 
breaji-downs we did our best to navigate astern 
of the main squadron, but could not work up Our 
speed to more than five or six knots. 

At 12.5 a.m. on the 29th of May we came to 
a dead stop on account of certain engine troubles, 
and after that they recurred so frequently that we 
could only navigate a little over ten knots. 

Suddenly at 1.45 a.m. the hull of the ship 
listed three or four degrees to port. When the 
bilge- wat^r was examined nothing unusual was 
noted, but the Russian officers were afraid of her 
capsizing and hurried to put on their life jackets, 
etc. All the other prisoners shared their fears, 
and added much to the tumult. As this proceed * 
ing made matters worse we had to instruct and 
pacify them by telling them there was nothing 
at which to be seriously alarmed. 

At 3.28 a.m. the water in the boilers sank 
l)elow the safety level, and in addition, as w(^ could 
liave no electric light on board it was dark every- 
where except in places of comparative importance 
where we had lighted caudles stuck up to give 

( 71 ) 



light for the transaction of necessary business. 
Early in the night we had heard the distant boom 
of cannon, but nothing whatever could we find out 
about any fighting that had taken place since the 
previous morning. Were we to fall in with the 
enemy's ships at such a time, without question the 
prisoners would rise against us. Our only source 
of reliance was the Usugumo which kept close to 
us, and as a precautionary measure to guard 
against any sudden emergency, we distributed 
among our men all the rifles and ammunition we 
had taken possession of. 

In case the ship had to be sunk or handed 
over to the enemy again, to lose our lives would 
be easy, but the much greater loss of our honour 
as warrio^^s would be harder to bear. As these 
thoughts crowded upon me, I felt greatly distressed 
with anxieties not easy to recount here. 

For the same reason the Usugumo could not 
be despatched to make her report before dawn, 
and we waited in ceaseless vigilance for the day 
to break. 

For one thing we wanted to find out where 
the water for the boilers was kept, neither could 
we ascertain whether there was any damage to the 
ship's bottom, and considered it too dangerous to 
open the double bottojn. 

Postponing our examination till after dawn, 

( 72 ) 



we made inquiries among the prisoners if there 
was any boiler water and where it was kept. 

At 4.15 a.m. the Usugurao was sent to a 
certain spot to report our present phght to the flag- 
ship, and request the assistance of a tug. 

On her way she fell in witli the Asama and 
told Captain Yashiro all about it. The Asama 
had several shots in her stern, and her after part 
was submerged four or five feet with the weight 
of the water she had consequently made. In spite 
of that she prepared to come and give us a tow, 
and so the Usugumo did not send a telegi-am to 
tlie flag- ship. However by the time the Asama 
reached us we had ah-eady prepared for naviga- 
tion, and did not therefore ask for her help. 

At 7.45 we found out where the water was 
kept and set about our trial run which proved 
very satisfactory. Taking into consideration the 
dangers arising from the water we should make 
through the lioles in our sides when wind and 
sea were high, we deemed it wiser to put back to 
the nearest naval port wliich would be Maidzuru. 

Our engineers and stokers had not had a wink 
of sleep since the niglit before, and some of tliem 
fainted at their posts. These were encouraged to go 
on with their work ; and by united efforts ten boilers 
were started up ; yet this was only sufficient to 
drive the ship 7 or 8 knots. Consequently ten 

( 73 ) 



auxiliaries were enlisted from the common seamen, 
and any Eussian stokers volunteering their services 
were accepted. Our engineer and his subordinates 
were thus enabled te enjoy a spell of rest in turn. 
Their labours were indeed arduous. 

At 8.18 we began our voyage for Maidzuru, 
and as the Usugumo returned to us at 9.20 we 
despatched her to Oki to send important telegrams 
to the Commander-in-chief of the combined 
squadrons, and of the Maidzuru Naval Station, 
as well as to the Minister of the Navy. At 8.35 
we met the flag- ship Mikasa, and got permission 
to put back to Maidzuru, the Asahi and Asama 
accompanying us as convoy and the Usugumo 
being sent in haste to Oki to telegrapli from 
there. 

At 11.30 four wounded prisoners died and we 
held a funeral service, which all the guards not 
on watch and petty oflicers and men off duty 
were made to attend. 

We had brought with us on board nothing but 
hard biscuits and tinned provisions, and up till 
now had not been able to prepare anything for 
our meals. Novv^ however, things on board were 
somewhat settled so that we had time to cook 
our food, and we made use of the galley and 
kitchen for that purpose. As for the victuals for 
the prisoners, we left the matter entirely in their 

(74) 



own hands, aiul our cooking time and tlieirs*^ 
unexpectedly clashed. 

Their officers were apparently unable to gei 
even hot water, and coming to me said that they 
had several w^ounded officers, from the captain 
downwards, to wiiom they would like to give 
sometliing well cooked, but they could no longer 
use the galley as our rations had to be pre- 
pared there. 

They begged for our sympathy towards their 
wounded companions and requested permission to 
use the kitchen after us. 

They w^ere thus quite fluent in English, while 
they had answered nothing but " No," when I 
asked them if they spoke that language. 

I told them tliat we much sympathised with 
the captain and tlie other w^ounded, and that they 
should be allowed to use the galley within ap- 
pointed hours ; at which with a thousand thanks 
for our kindness they withdrew. 

We were very much amused at their being 
driven by hunger to speak English after their 
previous repeated denials of any ability to do so, 
and could not h< Ij) laughing at them after they 
had left us. 

When their volunteer watch was over, bottles 
of wine were given to the Russian stokers who 
assisted our men, and they were liiixhly pleased- 

( 75 ) 



It was another source of amusement to us to see 
them joyfully bow before us, and hug the bottles 
when they were served out to them at the time 
of their relief. 

There was no necessity to employ the common 
seamen among the pidsoners, and therefore no reason 
to supply them with wine. Nevertheless the ^ sim- 
pletons would come to the door of our officers' 
room, repeatedly salute with upraised hands, flatter 
us with unintelligible chatter in Eussian, and even 
mimic the action of drinking wine, lifting their 
hands to their mouths as though they were cups. 
Every time these troublesome fellows came we 
had to scold them and drive them off. 

At 8.10 Captain Jung died of his serious 
wounds, and the Eussian officers asked me to 
direct them how he was to be buried. I told 
them that a grand funeral should be held at 
Maidzuru, but they all requested that he should 
be biu'ied at sea. We fell in with their wishes 
and decided to hold the ceremony early next 
morning. That night one of the prisoners, a Pole, 
came secretly to us and said that one of the 
Eussian engineers had attempted to open the sea 
valves and sink the ship. As the prisoners were 
in great fear of this eventuality, we examined the 
officer in question and confined him in a room 
with sentries before the door. At the same time 

(76) 



stricter watch was kept over all sea valves, and 
every possible precaution taken to protect the 
magazines used for keeping powder and other dan- 
gerous materials. Any key for the sea cocks still 
in store was routed out and disposed of, and we 
took the opportunity of signalling the Asama and 
Asalii that a circumstance had occurred necessitat- 
ing grave precautions on our part, and asking 
them to keep a close eye. upon us. Captain 
Yashiro of the Asama replied that he would send 
more men if we wanted them ; but while thanking 
him for his offer I declined it, informing him that 
there was no present necessity. While thus keep- 
ing strict watch with sentries stationed at the 
entrance to the. engine-room, as well as over the 
sea valves and so on, every Russian engineer or 
stoker entering and leaving the room was stopped 
and examined at the point of the bayonet. Some 
of them accused our sentry of wounding them with 
his weapon, and the absence of a common language 
made matters worse, but on examination all their 
accusations proved to be ridiculous. 

One of the Russian officers being, as I have 
stated, under confinement, a brother officer plead- 
ed his cause with iii< , asserting that we were 
wholly mistaken in our suspicions, and asking for 
his release. 

Later on he presented the same petition 

(77) 



from all the liiissian officers. " We are told," 
said he, "he is now confined under suspicion of 
an attempt to open the sea valves and sink the 
ship. We all guarantee that he committed no 
such action, and beg that he may be enlarged, 
as we will all be responsible for his never leaving 
the ward-room. Let us remind you that if he 
had wanted to sink the ship, he would have done 
so before our surrender. Now we have already 
obeyed our Admiral's orders to surrender, and it 
is absurd to suppose that any one of us would 
secretly try to sink the ship at this time of day. 
Don't you really think so. Captain ? " He prof- 
fered many other reasons in his defence, but I 
told him that, while quite appreciating all he had 
said, there were other considerations on account 
of which his brother officer was kept confined, 
and refused any fin^ther discussion as useless. 

The next morning, before we entered Mai- 
dzuru, first pledging all the Eussian officers to take 
charge of him and not allow him out of the ward- 
room, I set him free for the first time. 

When we were told that one of the Russian 
officers had made such an attempt, some of the 
younger members of our staff got so excited that 
they wanted to shoot him out of hand. I, however, 
warned them against such an action, and said, 
^' We must pay proper regard to the honour of 

( 78 ) 



the Russian officers after they have surrendered, 
and guard against any rash deed on our part. 
In every thing we must be fair. I have gi'eat 
sympathy with this imprisoned officer. The accu- 
sation against him is almost incredible, but yet 
the matter entail great consequences, and we are 
obliged to take precautions." Thereupon I bade my 
subordinate officer go and take him a bottle of 
wine. When Lieutenant Shoichi Kawakami with the 
bottle in his hand entered the room ' in which the 
prisoner was confined the latter was greatly as- 
tonished, and said with paling cheeks, *' Are you 
come to seize me ? " When therefore he found 
out that a present of wine had been sent him, he 
was pleasantly surprised and expressed his hearty 
thanks for our good will. 

The fimeral of Captain Jung was held at 7.30 
a.m. on May 30th. I recollected how when lehisa 
Shimadzu attacked Shoun Takahashi at the castle 
of Iwaya Chikuzen in the Tensho era, he invited 
priests to conduct the funeral with due respect. 
An altar was set up on which he burned incense 
at the fimeral in honour of Shoun Takahashi. " I 
grieve that I was born in a warrior's family and 
have now to kill such a valiant general myself," 
said he. When every preparation had been made 
for the funeral, again Yoshihisa Shimadzu clasped 
his liands anri irvorently closed his eyes when 

( 79 ) 



his enemy's head was brought before him by Taka- 
nobu Ryuzoji. In days of old all generals treated 
their defeated enemies in a similar way, and om^ 
code of Bushido ought to be carried out in a like 
manner to-day. 

Mr. Jung was a captain who fought bravely 
to the death for his native land, and on receipt 
of permission from our senior captain I ordered a 
flag to fly half mast, and a firing party to parade 
at the funeral which was attended with due res- 
pect by all our officers, petty officers and men. 

The Asama too had a flag half masted, and 
paraded all hands. How did it strike the Eussian 
officers and men when they heard of this? We 
wonder. 

We reached the entrance to the port of Mai- 
dzuruatnoon, Admiral Hidaka, Commander-in-chief 
of the Naval Station, comjng out to welcome us in a 
steam-launch, while the Asama and Asahi w^ere 
greeted with lively strains from the band. The 
Orel had a tug close by her side from the outside 
of the port in order to assist her to enter, and 
cast anchor safely at 1. p.m. 

The Russian prisoners, officers and men 268 
in all were sent to the Naval Barracks, and their 
wounded, 42 in number, to the Hospital there. 

After the officers and men from the Asahi and 
Kasuga had left, the Orel was handed over to the 

(80) 



Chief of the Naval Reserve ships at 9 p.m. that 
night. 



^ t-.^^^^^-> ^ 



(81) 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 



Official Reports. 



(Issued on May 29.) 

The following are the reports received from 
Admiral Togo, Commander-in-chief of the Com- 
bined Fleet, on the naval battle going on in the 
Sea of Japan since May 27 : 

I. 

(Received, May 27, Fokenoon.) 
Having received the report that the enemy's 
war-ships have been sighted, the Combined Fleet 
will immediately set out to attack and annihilate 
them. Weather is fine and clear, but the sea is 
high. 

11. 
(Received, May 27, Night.) 
The Combined Fleet to-day met and gave 
battle to the enemy's fleet in the vicinity of Oki- 
noshima, and defeated them, sinking at least four 
of their ships and inflicting serious, damages on 
the rest. Our fleet sustained only slight injuries. 

( 82 ) 



Our destroyers and torpedo boats dclivc red daring 
attacks upon the enemy after dark. 

111. 

(Keceived, May 29, Afiernoon.) 

Since the 27th, the main force of our Combined 
Fleet has continued its pursuit of the remnant 
of tlie enemy's vessels. Encountering on the 28th, 
in the neighbourhood of Liancourt Rocks, a group 
of Russian ships consisting of the battleships Nicho- 
lai I. and Orel, the coast defence ships Admiral 
Senijavin and General Admiral Apraxin and the 
cruiser Izumrod, we immediately attacked them. 
Th(* Izumrod separated herseK from the rest and 
fled. The other four war- ships, however, soon sur- 
rendered. Our fleet sustained no losses. 

According to the prisoners, the Russian war- 
vessels sunk during the engagement on the 27th 
were the battleships Borodino and Alexander IIL 
the cruiser Jemtchug, and three otlier ships. Some 
2000 Russians, including Rear- Admiral Nebogatoff, 
have been taken prisoner. 

IV. 

(Keceived, May 30, Afternoon.) 

Tlie naval engagement which took place fi^om 
the afternoon of May 27 to May 28 inclusive, shall 

(83 ) 



be styled the Naval Battle of the Sea of Japan. 

V. 

(Keceived, May 30, Afternoon.) 

The main body of the Combined Fleet, as al- 
ready reported in a previous telegram, smTOunded 
and bombarded the main force of the enemy's 
remaining fleet near Liancourt Rocks on the after- 
noon of May 28. The enemy having surrendered, 
we suspended our bombardment and were engaged 
in the disposal of these ships, when at about three 
o'clock we sighted to the south-west of us the 
Admiral Oushakoff steaming northward. I immedi- 
ately ordered the Iwate and Yakumo to pursue her. 
They invited her to surrender, but the advice being 
refused, they attacked and sank her a little 
past six o'clock. Over 300 of her crew were 
rescued. 

At about five o'clock, the enemy's ship Dmitri 
Donskoi was sighted to the north-west of us. The 
fourth fighting detachment and the second destroy- 
er flotilla overtook her, and fiercely attacked her 
until it was dark. As she was then still afloat, the 
destroyer flotilla attacked her during the night, but 
the result was unknown. The next moring, how- 
ever, she was discovered by the second destroyer 
flotilla aground on the south-east coast of the 
Ullondo Island. The above-mentioned flotilla, to- 

(84) 



gether ^\^t]l the Kasuga, are now engaged in the 
disposal of the disabled Russian ship. 

Toward dusk on the 28th inst., the destroyer 
Sazanami captured the enemy's destroyer Biedovi 
at the south of Ullondo. On board her were found 
Viee-Admiral Eodjestvensky, the Commander-in- 
chief of the JUissian squadron, Kear-Admiral 
Enquist, their staff officers and others, numbering 
altogether over 80. They had boarded the Biedovi 
after the flag- ship Kniaz Soiivarqfwas sunk during 
the engagement on the 27th inst. They have all 
been taken prisoner. The two admirals are 
severely wounded. 

The Chitose, while going northward on the 
morning of the 28th inst., discovered a Russian 
destroyer and sank her. 

I have also received a report from the Niitaka 
and Murdkumo that they defeated a torpedo boat 
destroyer of tlie enemy and forced lier to beach 
herself in the neighbourhood of Chukpyon Bay 
(Ullondo) at about noon on the 28th inst. 

Summing up the reports so far obtained, and 
the statements of the prisoners of war, the Russian 
war-ships sunk in tlie engagement of the 27th and 
28th, are tlie Kniaz Souvaroff, Alexander IlL, Bo- 
rodino^ Dmitri Donskoi^ Admiral Nachimoff^ Vladimir 
Monomach, Jemic/nK/, Admiral Otishakoff, an auxili- 
ary cruiser, and two' destroyers. The sliips cap- 

( 86 ) 



tured are five, namely the Nicholai /., Orel, Admiral 
Apraxin, Admiral Senyamn, and Biedovi. Accord- 
ing to the prisoners of war the enemy's battleship 
Osliabia was sunk after sustaining severe damage 
between 3 and 4 p.m. on the 27th. They further 
say that the battleship Navarln was also sunk. 

In addition to the above, the third fighting 
detachment reports that it observed the enemy's 
cruiser Almaz disabled and about to sink at sunset 
on the 27th inst. But, as there still remains some 
doubt about it, her fate will be reported later on 
after further investigations, together with the re- 
sult of the attacks delivered by our destroyers and 
torpedo boats, about which no report has yet been 
received. 

As for the damages sustained by the various 
ships of our Fleet, no detailed report has yet 
reached me ; but within the scope of ray personal 
observation, none of our ships have received any 
serious damage, all of them being still engaged in 
operations. Nor has there been sufficient time to 
make investigations as to the extent of oar casual- 
ties. But I may state that there have been more 
than 400 officers and men killed and wounded in 
the first fighting detachment alone. 

Lieut.-Commander H.I.H. Prince Higashi-Fu- 
shimi is safe. Bear- Admiral Misu was, however, 
sHghtly wounded during the engagement of the 27th. 

( 86) 



VI. 

(Received, May 30, Afternoon.) 

I consider that the report that the battleships 
Osliahia and Navarin were sunk is well-founded. 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE. 

It has been definitely reported that the battle- 
ship Sissoi Veliki was sunk on the morning of the 
28th inst. The total losses of the enemy in?iy now 
be stated as follows : 

Sunk. 
Battleships : 

Kniaz Souvaroff (13,516 tons). 

Imperator Alexander IIL . . (13,516 tons). 

Borodino (13,516 tons). 

OsUahia ... (12,674 tons). 

Sissoi Veliki (10.400 tons). 

Navarin (10,206 tons). 

Cruiseks : 

Admiral Nachimoff (8,524 tons). 

Dmitri Donskoi (6,200 tons). 

Vladimir Monmnach .... (5,593 tons). 

Svieflana (3,727 tons). 

Jemtchiig (3,103 tons). 

Coast Defence Ship : 

Admiral Ovshakoff (4,126 tons). 

Specially Commissioned Vessels : 

(87 ) 



Kamtchatka (7,207 tons). 

Irtish (7,507 tons). 

Destroyees : 

Three destroyers. 

Captured. 

Battleships : 

Orel (13,516 tons). 

Imperator Nicholal /..... (9,594 tons). 
Coast Defence Ships : 

General Adiniral Apraxin (4,126 tons). 

Admiral Senyavin ...... (4,960 tons). 

Destroyer : 

Biedovi (350 tons). 

Thus the enemy's total losses may be classified 
as follows : — 

Sunk. Captured. Total. 

Battleship 6 2 8 

Cruisers 5 5 

Coast defence ships .... 1 2 3 
Specially commissioned 

vessels 2 2 

Destroyers 3 1 4 

Total numbers 17 5 22 

Total Tonnage 153,411 tons. 

In addition to the above, the cruiser Almaz 
( 88) 



(3,285 tons) is suspected of having been sunk. 

The prisoners number more than 3000 includ- 
ing Vice-Admiral Rodjestvensky, Rear-Admiral Ne- 
l)Ogatoff, and Eear- Admiral Enquist. 

VII. 

(Received, May 30, Afternoon.) 
From the reports which have since poured in 
from the different squadrons and detachments 
under my command, it is now certain that the 
enemy's battleship Osliabia, having been seriously 
damaged in the early stage of the engagement on 
the 27th inst. left the fighting line and was the 
first to sink, at a little past three o'clock in tlie 
afternoon. As for the battleships Sissoi Veliky and 
the cruisers Admiral Nachlmoff and Vladimir Mono- 
mach, in addition to the mauling they had received 
during the daytime, they were so severely damaged 
by toi-pedo boat attacks during night, that they 
lost all power of fighting and navigation ; and 
while they wcvc (hiiniii: about the next morning 
in the neighbourhood of Tsushima, were discovered 
by our conveiied cruisers Shinano Maru, Yaioata 
Maru, Tainan Maru, Sado Maru, etc. When our 
8hip> wcie about to capture them, they all went 
to the bottom. Survivors from these Russian war- 
ships, al)Out 915 in number, were rescued and 

(89 ) 



cared for on board our ships, and in private houses 
on the coast. It is also certain from the state- 
ment of the survivors from the battleship Navarin, 
that she sank as the result of four hits from our 
torpedo boats after dusk on the 27th inst. 

According to a report from the Commander 
of the Niitaka, the enemy's cruiser Svietlana was 
found by the Niitaka and Otoiva off Chukpyon Bay 
on the 28th inst. at about 1) a.m., and sunk by 
our ships. 

There are grounds for suspecting that the 
Auro7^a and the Almaz were sunk by our torpedo 
boats on the night of the 27th inst. In a previ- 
ous report, the Jemtchug was included among the 
ships that were sunk, but as there is room for 
doubt, I have to withdraw my report on this matter 
until the completion of more accurate investigations. 

Putting together what I have reported in my 
previous telegrams and what I have thus far 
submitted in the present despatch, I may say that 
the eight battleships, three armoured cruisers and 
three armoured coast defence ships, which con- 
stituted the enemy^s main strength, have all been 
sunk or captured, and as for the second class 
cruisers and other ships which served as the fleet's 
hands and feet, they have also for the most part 
been destroyed. The enemy's fleet has thus been 
practically annihilated by this one battle. 

( 90 ) 



As for the losses sustained by us, I am 
iu a position to state that, according^ to later re- 
ports, no ships have been lost except the three 
torpedo boats, nuinl)ers 34, :>."), .-iik] ()'J, wliicli were 
sunk by the enemy's fire durin;^ the night attack 
of the 27th inst. The greater part of their crews 
were, however, picked up by their fellow boats. 
As for the damage received by the ships of and 
above the destroyer class, it is so unexpectedly 
slight, that none of tliose ships are unfit for future 
active service. 

With regard to the casualties among our 
officers and men, I expected from tlie outset that 
the list would be a long one. But as a matter of 
fact, later reports disclose the fact that the loss 
has been comparatively small. The present es- 
timate falls below 8(}(). The reports about the 
killed and wounded will be at once telegraplied 
as they come iu, so that their families luay he 
consoled with as little delay as possible. 

In the present battle which was fought willi 
almost til*' < utile strength of the fleet on both 
sides, not only w^as the field of operations extreme- 
ly extensive, but the wc^ather was very misty, sa 
that even whei'c there was no smoke of guns or 
coal the vision could not reach beyond live ri 
(I2V2 miles). It \v;is i!upossible, even in daytime, 
to keep the operations of all the squadi'ons under 

( 01 ) 



my command within the range oi my view. More- 
over, the fighting continued for two days and 
nights, and the" squadrons have pursued the scat- 
tered enemy in every direction, some of them being 
still engaged in various duties in connection with 
the completion of the battle. As for particular^ 
of the actions of the entire forces, it will be some 
days before I may be able to forward detailed 
reports. 

VIII. 

(Received, May 31, Night.) 
According to the report of the Commander of 
the cruiser Kasuga, which joined the Fleet this af- 
ternoon with the survivors from the Dmitri Donskoi 
on board, the latter ceased pumping operations on 
the morning of the 29th and sank herself by open- 
ing her Kingston valves. Her crew landed on 
Ullondo Island. They included the survivors from 
the enemy's sunken war-ship Osliahia and destroyer 
Vidny. The Vidny took on board Vice- Admiral 
Eodjestvensky, Commander-in-chief of the Russian 
Fleet, and his staff from the enemy's flag- ship, 
prior to the latter' s sinking on the afternoon of 
the 27th. While engaged in the work of taking 
in these officers, the Vidny was struck by a shell 
from one of our war- ships. She subsequently took 
in more than 200 sin^vivors from tlie battleship 

( 92 ) 



Osliabia. As this rendered it difficult for her to 
continue her further voyage, she removed Vice- 
Admiral Rodjestvensky and his staflPto the destroyer 
Biedovi, and then fled northward. 8he met the 
Dmitri Donskoi on the morning of the 28tli, re- 
moved all the members of her crew to the cruiser, 
and then sank herself. According to the state- 
ment of the survivors from the Osliabia, that vessel 
had her conning tower struck by a shell at the 
beginning of the engagement of the 27th, which 
killed Admiral Folkersam. In consequence of the 
severe and concentrated fire of our war- ships, 
the Osliabia finally sank in the midst of her fellow 
war- ships at a little past 3 p.m., the same day. 
According to the survivors from tlie Dmitri Donslioi, 
two Russian destroyers were observed to sink while 
the engagement was raging at noon on the 27th. 
If the latter statement is correct, the number of 
the enemy's destroyers so far reported as sunk 
has reached six. 



IX. 



(Received, June 1, Afternoon.) 

The detacliment including the Yakumo and 

Iicate, which on the 30th May, having returned 

from the pursuit to the north, at once set out for 

the search to the south, has just returned (in the 

(93) 



afternoon of June 1). The detachment thorough- 
ly searched the neighbourhood of Torishima and 
also the Shanghai route, but failed to discover 
any of the enemy's vessels. According to the 
report of Rear- Admiral Shimamura, Commander 
of the Second Squadron and on board the Iicate, 
the hostile war- ship Jemtchug was sunk almost im- 
mediately during the battle of the 27th, at 3.07 
p.m. at a point 3000 metres from the Iwate, by 
the fierce gun fire from the latter. At that time, 
the Jemtchug was on fire and enveloped in dense 
smoke, which prevented other ships in our fleet 
from witnessing her sinking. It was for this reason 
the event was lately reported as doubtful. 

X. 

(Eeceived, June 2, Afternoon.) 
Of the enemy's specially commissioned vessels, 
those which were sunk during tlie engagement of 
the 27th were the auxiliary cruiser Ural, transport 
Irtish, repairing ship Kamtchatka, and another ves- 
sel. The latter was one of the two tug-boats which 
were following the enemy's squadron for the pur- 
pose of facilitating its coaling operations. The sink- 
ing of this vessel was reported by the prisoners. 
Of the enemy's ships observed at the scene of the 
battle at its commencement, those whose where- 

( 04 ) 



about is yet unknown are the second class cruisers 
Oleg and Aurora, the third class cruisers Izumrod 
and Almaz, three specially commissioned vessels, 
two destroyers and one tug-boat. The rest have 
all been sunk or captured. Among these remnants, 
the Oleg and Aicrara were within the range of fire 
from our tliird and fourth fighting detachment and 
were observed to be on fire several times. 1 hough 
they may have escaped destruction, a number of 
days must elapse before they are able to recover 
tlieir fighting power. 



Admiral Togo's Report of the Battle of the 
Sea of Japan. 

By the help of Heaven our united squadron 
fought with the enemy's Second and Third Squad- 
rons on May 27 and 28, and succeeded in almost 
annihilating him. 

When the enemy's fleet first appeared in the 
south seas, our squadrons, in obedience to Imperial 
command, adopted the strategy of awaiting liim 
and striking at him in our home waters. We 
therefore concentrated our strength at the Korean 
Straits, and there abode his coming north. After 
touching for a time on the coast of Annam, he 
gradually moved northward, and some days before 

( 95 ) 



the time when he should arrive in our waters 
several of our guard-ships were distributed on 
watch in a south-easterly direction, according to 
plan, while the fighting squadrons made ready for 
battle, each anchoring at its base so as to be ready 
to set out immediately. 

Thus it fell out that on the 27th, at 5 a.m., 
the southern guard-ship Shinano Maru reported by 
wireless telegraphy, " Enemy's fleet sighted in No. 
203 section. He seems to be steering for the east 
channel." 

The whole crews of our fleet leaped to their 
posts ; the ships weighed at once, and each 
squadron, proceeding in order to its appointed 
place, made its dispositions to receive the enemy. 
At 7 a.m. the guard-ship on the left wing of the 
inner line, the Idzumi, reported : " The enemy's 
ships are in sight. He has already reached a 
point twenty-five nautical miles to the north-west 
of "Ukujima ; he is advancing north-east." The 
Togo (Captain Togo Masamichi) section, the Dewa 
section, and the cruiser squadron (which was under 
the direct command of Vice-Admiral Kataoka) 
came into touch with the enemy from 10 to 11 
a.m., between Iki and Tsushima ; and thereafter 
as far as the neighbourhood of Okinoshima, these 
ships, though fired on from time to time by the 
enemy, successfully kept in constant touch with 

( 96) 



liim, and euiiveyed by telegrapli accurate and 
frcHjuent reports of his state. Thus, though a 
heavy fog covered the sea, making it impossible 
to observ'e anything at a distance of over fisG 
miles, all the conditions of the enemy were as 
clear to ns, who were thirty or forty miles distant, 
as tliongh they liad been under our ver^^ eyes. 
Long before we came in sight of him we knew 
that his fighthig force comprised the Second and 
Third Baltic Squadrons, that he liad seven special 
semce ships witli him, that he was marshalled 
in two colunnis line abend, that his strongest 
vessels were at the head of the right column, that 
his special service craft followed in the rear, that 
his speed wns aliout twelve knots, and that he 
was still advancing to the north-east. 

Therefore^ 1 was enabled to adopt the strategy 
of directing my main strength, at about 2 p.m., 
towards Okinoshima with the object of attacking 
the head of liis left column. The main squadron, 
tlie annoured cniiser squadron, the Uriu sec- 
tion, and the various destroyer sections, at noon 
reached a point about ten nautical miles north of 
Okinoshima, whence, with the object of attacking 
the enemy's left column, they steered west, and 
at about 1.30 p.m. the Dewa section, the cruiser 
squadron, and the Togo (Captain) section, still 
keeping touch with the enemy, arrived one after 

(97) 



the other and joined forces. At 1.45 p.m. we 
sighted the enemy for the first time' at a distance 
of several miles south on our port bow. As had 
been expected, liis right column was headed by- 
four battleships of the Borodino type ; his left by 
the OsUabla, the Slssoi Veliky, the Navarin, and 
the Nachimoff, after which came the Nikolai I. 
and the three coast defence vessels, forming an- 
other squadron ; the Jemtchug and the Izumrocl 
were between the two columns, and seemed to 
be acting as advance scouts. In the rear, obscur- 
ed by the fog, we indistinctly made out the Oleg 
and the Aurora, with other second and third-class 
cruisers, forming a squadron ; while the Dmitri 
Donskoi, the Vladimir Monomach, and the special 
service steamers were advancing in column of line 
ahead, extending to a distance of several miles. 

I now ordered the whole fleet to go into 
action, and at 1.55 p.m. ran up this signal for 
all the ships in sight : " The fate of the Empire 
depends upon this event. Let every man do his 
utmost." 

Shortly afterwards our main squadron headed 
south-west, and made as though it would cross the 
enemy's course at right angles ; but at five minutes 
past two o'clock the squadron suddenly turned 
east, and bore down on the head of the enemy's 
column in a diagonal direction. The armour- 

( 98 ) 



-cnl cruiser squadron followed iu tlie rear of the 
main squadron, tlie whole formhig single column 
line ahead. The Dewa section, the Uriu section, 
the ciiiiser squadron, and the Togo (Captain) sec- 
tion, in accordance with the previously arranged 
plan of action, steered south to attack the rear 
of the enemy's column. Such, at the beginning 
of the battle, were the dispositions on both sides. 

Fight of the Main Squadron. 

The head of the enemy's column, when our 
main squadron bore down on it, changed its 
oourse a little to starboard, and at eight minutes 
past two o'clock he opened fire. We did not 
repl}^ for some time, but when we came within 
^000 metres range concentrated a heavy fire 
on two of his battleships. Tins seemed to force 
liim more than ever to the south-east and his two 
<*olumns simultaneously changed their course by 
degi'ees to the east, tlnis falling into irregular 
colimins line ahead, and moving parallel to us. 
The Osliabia, which headed the left column, was 
soon badly injured, burst into a fierce contlagra- 
tion, and left the fightin- line. The whole of the 
aiTOOured cruiser squadron was now steaming be- 
liind the main squadron in line, and the lire of 
both squadrons becoming more and more elFective 
as the range dcKireased, the flag- ship Knlaz Souvar- 

(99) 



off and. the Imperator Alexander III., which was 
the second in the hne, caught fire and left the 
fighting Hne, so that the enemy's order became 
more deranged. Several of the ships following 
also took fire, and the smoke, carried by the 
westerly wind, quickly swept over the face of 
the sea, combining with the fog to envelop the 
enemy's fleet, so that our principal fighting squad- 
rons ceased firing for a time. 

On our side also the ships had suflered more 
or less. The Asama had been struck by three 
shells in the stern near the water-line, her steer- 
ing-gear had been injured, and she was leaking 
badly, so that she had to leave the fightings 
line ; but she performed temporary repairs, and 
was very soon able to resume her place. 

Such was the state of the main fighting- 
forces on each side at 2.45 p.m. By this interval 
the result of the battle had been already decided. 

Thereafter our main squadron, forcing the 
enemy in a southerly direction, fired on him in 
a leisurely manner whenever a ship could be 
discerned tln-ough the smoke and fog, and at ^ 
p.m. we were in front of his line, and shaping a 
nearly south-easterly course. But the enemy now 
suddenly headed north, and seemed about to 
pass northward the rear of our line. Therefore 
our main squadron at once went about to port, 

(100) 



and, with the NlssJiin leading, steered to the 
north-west. The armoured cruiser squadron also, 
following in the niJiin s(]uadron's wake, changed 
fi-ont, and thereafter iigaiii forced the enemy south- 
ward, firing on him hea\dly. 

At 3.7 p.m. the Jemtchug came up to the rear 
of the armoui'ed cruiser squadron, but was severe- 
ly injured by our fire. The OsUabla also, whicli 
had already been put out of action, sank at ten 
minutes past three o'clock, and the Kniaz Souvarqff', 
which had been isolated, was injm-ed more and 
more. She lost one of her masts and two smoke- 
stacks, and the wiiole ship, being enveloped in 
flame and smoke, became unmanageable, and her 
crew fell into confusion. The enemy's other ves- 
sels, suflTering heavily, changed their course again 
to the east. Our main squadron now altered its 
<lirection sixteen points to starboard, and, the 
armoured cruiser squadron following, pursued the 
retreating enemy, ix)uring a constantly heavier fire 
on liim, and discliarging toipedoes also whenever 
occasion offered. 

Until 4.45 p.m. there was no special change 
in the condition of the principal fight. The enemy 
was constantly pressed south, and tlie firing con- 
tinued. 

What desen-es to be specially recount <1 liere 
is the conduct of the destroyer Chihaija and of 

(101) 



the Hirose destroyer section at 3.40 p.m., as, well 
as that of the Sudzuki destroyer section at 4.45- 
p.m. These bravely fired torpedoes at the flag- 
ship Souvaroff. The result was not clear in the 
case of the first-named boats, but a torpedo dis- 
charged by the last-named section hit the Souvaroff 
astern on the port side, and after a time she 
was seen to list some 10 degrees. In those two 
attacks the Shiranui, of the Hirose section, and 
the Asashio, of the Sudzuki section, being each hit 
once by shells from ships in the neighbour- 
hood, fell into soine danger, but both happily 
escaped. 

At 4.40 p.m. the enemy apparently abandoned 
the attempt to seek an avenue of escape north- 
ward, for he headed south and seemed inclined 
to fly in that direction. Accordingly our chief 
fighting force, with the armoured cruiser squadron 
in advance, went in pursuit, but lost him after 
a time in the smoke and fog. Steaming south 
for about eight miles, we fired leisurely on a 
second-class cruiser of the enemy's and some 
special service steamers wliicli we passed on our 
starboard, and at 5.30 p.m. our main squadron 
turned northward again in search of the enemy's 
principal force, while the armoured cruiser squad- 
ron, proceeding to the south-west, attacked the 
enemy's cruisers. Thereafter until nightfall these 

(102) 



two squadrons followed different routes and did 
not again sight each other. 

At 5.40 p.m. the main squadron fired once 
upon the enemy's special service steamer Ural, 
which was near by the port side, and immediately 
sank her. Then as the squadron was steaming 
north in search of the enemy, it sighted on tlie 
port bow the remaining ships of his principal 
force, six in number, flying in a cluster to the 
noiih-east. Approaching at once, it steamed 
parallel to these and then renewed the fight, grad- 
ually emerging ahead of them and bearing down 
on their front. The enemy had steered north- 
east at first, but his course wjis uiadually deflect- 
ed to the west, and he finalh' pushed north-west. 
This fight on parallel lines continned from p.m. 
to nightfall. The enemy suffered so heavily that 
liis fire was much reduced, whereas our delilx'iato 
practice told more and more. A battleship of the 
Alexander III. type quickly left the fighting line 
and fell to the rear, and a vessel like the Borodino, 
which led the coliunn, took fire at ().40 p.m. and 
at 7.23 suddenly became enveloped in smoke and 
sank in an instant, the flames having probably 
i« M( lied her magazine. Further, the ships of the 
:iii;i«)ure<l cruiser squadron, which Avere IIm n in 
the south pursuing the enemy's cruiser s(|iiadron 
northward, saw at 7.7 p.m. a ship lik(^ the 

( 1<>:^ ) 



Borodino, witli a heavy list and in an unmanage- 
able condition, come to the side of the Nachimoff, 
where she turned over and went to the bottom. 
It was subsequently ascertained from the prisoners 
that this was the Alexander III. and that the 
vessel which the main squadron saw sink w^as 
the Borodino, 

It was now getting dusk, and our destroyer 
sections and torpedo sections gradually closed in 
on the enemy from the east, north and south, 
their preparations for attack having been already 
made. Therefore the main squadron ceased by 
degrees to press the enemy, and at 7.28 p.m. 
when the sun was setting, drew off to the east. 
I then ordered the Tatsuta to carry orders to the 
fleet that it should proceed northward and rendez- 
vous on the following morning at the Ulneung 
Islands. 

This was the end of the day l)attle on the 
27 th. 

Fight of the Dewa, Uriu, and Togo (Captain) 
Section and of the Cruiser Squadron. 

At 2 p.m., when the order to open the fight 
was given, the Dewa, Uriu, and Togo sections 
and the cruiser squadron, separating from the 
main squadron, steamed back south, keeping the 
enemy on the port bow^ In pursuance of the 

(104) 



strategical plan already laid down, they proceeded 
to menace the vessels forming the enemy's rear, 
namely, the special senice steamers and tlie 
cruisers Oleg, Aurora, Svietlana, Almaz, Dmitri 
7h)i.<l-ni. ; 111(1 Vladimir Moiiomach. The Dewa 
and Uriu sections, working togetlier in line, reached 
the enemy's cruiser squadron, and steaming in a 
direction opposite to his course, engaged liim, 
gradually passing round his rear and emerging 
on his starboard where the attack was renewed 
on parallel courses. Then, taking advantage of 
their superior speed, these sections changed front 
at their own convenience, sometimes engaging the 
enemy on the ix)rt side, sometimes on the star- 
board. After tliirty minutes of this fighting the 
enemy's rear section gi-adually fell into disorder, 
liis special sei-vice steamers and war- si dps scatter- 
ing and losing their objective. At a little after 
3 p.m. a vessel like the Aurora left the enemy's 
uiiik and approached our ships, but being severely 
injured by our heavy fire, she fell back. Again, 
;if :'.l<> ]).m. three of the enemy's destroyers 
^allied out to attack us, but w^ere repulsed with- 
out accomplisliing anything. 

The result of this combined attack by tlie 
Dewa and Uriu sections was that by 4 o'clock 
there had been a marked development of the 
situation, the enemy's kjii scx'tion being thrown 

(105) 



into complete disorder. The ships in this quarter 
liad fallen out of their formation, all seemed to have 
suffered more or less injury, and some were seen 
to have become unmanageable. 

The Uriu section, at about 4.20 p.m., seeing 
one of the enemy's special service steamers (prob- 
ably the Anjier), a three-master with two smoke- 
stacks, which had become isolated, at once bore 
down on her and sank her. This section also 
fired heavily on another special service steamer, 
a four-master with one funnel (probably the litis), 
and nearly sank her. 

About this time our cruiser squadron and 
tlie Togo section arriving on the scene, joined 
forces with the Dewa and Uriu sections, and, all 
working together, pursued and attacked the 
enemy's disordered cruiser squadron and special 
service steamers. While this was in progress, 
four of the enemy's war- ships (perhaps the coast 
defence vessels), which had been forced back by 
our main squadrons, came steaming south and 
joined his cruiser squadron. Owing to this the Uriu 
section and our cruiser squadron became heavily 
engaged with tliese for a time at short range, 
and all suffered more or less, but fortunately 
their injuries were not serious. 

Previoush^ to this the Kasagl, flag- ship of the 
Dewa section, had been hit in her port bunker 

(106) 



l>elow tlif wttkT-line. As she made water, it 
became necessary for her to proceed to a place 
where the sea was cahn in order to effect tem- 
porary repairs. Kear- Admiral Dewa himself took 
away the Kasagl and Chltose for tliat purpose^ 
and the remaining ships of his section passed 
mider the command of Eear- Admiral Urin. At 
() p.m. the Kasagl reached Abnraya Bay, and 
Rear- Admiral Dewa, transferring his flag to. the 
Chitose, steamed ont during the night, but tlio 
Kasagi's repairs required so much time that she 
was not able to take part in the pursuit the 
following day. Tlie flag-ship Nan'njca of the Uriu 
section, also received a shell below the water-line 
astern, and at about 5.10 p.m. slie \vm\ to h'.ivo 
the fighting line and effect temporary repairs. 

Alike in the north and in the south the 
enemy's whole fleet was now iu disorder, and 
had fallen into a pitial)ly broken couditiou. There- 
fore at 5.30 p.m. our armoured cruiser squadron 
separated from the main squadron, and, steaming 
south, attacked the enemy's cruiser squadron. At 
the same time the enemy, forming a group, all 
fled north pursued by the Uriu section, the cruiser 
squadron, and the Togo section. On the way the 
enemy's battleship Kniaz Souvarq/f, wliicli had 
been left behind uiini;iii;ii:( ;il>!(', as well as his 
i-epair sliip, Kamchatha, were sighted, and the 

(107) 



cruiser squadron, with the Togo section, at once 
proceeded to destroy them. At 7.10 p.m. the 
Kamchatka was sunk, and then the Fujimoto 
torpedo section, which accompanied the cruiser 
squadron, steamed out and attacked the Souvaroff. 
She made her last resistance with a small gun 
iistern, but w^as finally struck by two of our 
torpedoes, and went down. This was at 7.20 
p.m. Very shortly afterwards our ships in this 
part of the action received orders to rendez-vous 
-at the Ulneung Islands, and consequently we 
ceased fighting, and steamed to the noi-th-east. 

Fight of the Destroyer and Torpedo Sections. 

The fight during the night of the 27th began 
immediately after the battle during the day had 
ceased. It was a vehement and most resolute 
•attack by the various destroyer and torpedo sec- 
tions. 

From the morning of this day a strong south- 
west wind had raised a sea so high that the 
handling of small craft became very difficult. 
Perceiving this, I caused the torpedo section 
which accompanied my own squadron to take 
refuge in Miura Bay before the day- fighting com- 
anenced. Towards evening the wind lost some of 
its force, but the sea remained very high, and 
the state of affairs was very unfavourable for 

. (108) 



night oiK'ratioiis b}' our torpedo craft. Never- 
theless our destroyer sections and torpedo sec- 
tions, fearing to lose tliis unique occasion for 
combined action, all stood out before sunset,, 
regardless of the state of the weather, and each 
v\'ing with the other to take the lead, approached 
the enemy. The Fujinioto destroyer section steam- 
ed from tlie north, the Yajima destroj^er section 
and the Kawase torpedo section fi^om the north- 
east, bore down on the enemy's main squadron, while 
the rear of the same squadron was approached 
by the Yoshijima destroyer section from the east, 
and tlu' Ilirose destroyer section from the south- 
east. The Fukuda, Otaki, Aoyama, and Kawada 
toi-pedo sections, coming from the south, pursued 
the detached vessels of the enemy's main squad- 
ron, as well as the group of ciniisers on a parallel 
line in liis left rear. Thus as night fell these 
tori^edo craft closed in on him from tlu^ee sides. 
Alarmed apparently by this onset, the enemy at 
sunset steered off to the south-west, and seems to 
have then changed his course again to the east. 
At 8.15 p.m. the night battle was commenced 
by the Yajima destroyer attacking the head of 
the enemy's main squadron, whereafter the varic ust 
sections of torpedo craft swarmed about him fi'om 
ever}' direction, and until 11 p.m. kept up a con- 
tinuou< Mttar-k at close quarters. From niglitfnU 

(109} 



the enemy made a desperate resistance by the 
aid of search-lights and the flashing of guns, but 
the onset overcame hinC he lost his formation, 
and fell into confusion, his vessels scattering in 
all directions to avoid our onslaught. The torpedo 
sections pursuing, a pell-mell contest ensued, in 
the course of which the battleship Slssoi Velihj 
and the armoured cruisers Admiral Nachimoff and 
Vladimir' Monomach, three ships at least, were 
struck by torpedoes, put out of action, and rendered 
unmanageable. On our side No. 69 of the Fukuda 
torpedo section. No. 34 of the Aoyama section, 
and No. 35 of the Kawada sections were all sunk 
by the enemy's shells during the action, while 
tlie destroyers Harusame, Akatsuki^ Ikadzuchi and 
Yiigiri, as well as the torpedo boats Sagi, No. 
68 and No. 33, suffered more or less from gun- 
fire or from collisions, being temporarily put out 
of action. The casualties also were comparatively 
numerous, especially in the Fukuda, Aoyama, and 
Kawada sections, the crews of the three torpedo 
boats which sank were taken off by their con- 
sorts, the Kari, No. 3.1 and No. 61. 

According to statements subsequently made 
by prisoners, the torpedo attack that night was 
indescribably fierce. The torpedo craft steamed 
in so rapidly and so close that it was impossible 
to deal with them, and they came to such short 

(110) 



range tliat the war- ship's guns could not be 
depressed sufficiently to aim at them. 

In addition to the above the Sudzuki destroyer 
section and other torpedo sections proceeded in 
other directions the same niglit to search for the 
enemy. On the 28th at 2 a.m. the Sudziiki sec- 
tion sighted two sliips steaming north at a dis- 
tance of some 27 miles east -north- east of Kara- 
saki. The section immediately gave cimse and 
sank one of the ships. Subsequent statements by 
prisoners rescued from her showed her to be the 
battlesliip Navarln, and that she was struck by 
two torpedoes on each side, after which she sank 
in a few minutes. The other torped(^ sections 
>( 'iicljed in various directions all niglit, but ac- 
complished nothing. 

The Fight on May 28. 

At dawn on May 28 the fog wliich had 
prevailed since the previous day lifted. The main 
squadron and the armoured cruiser squadron had 
already reached a point some 20 miles south of 
the Ulneung Islands, and the other sections, as 
w^ell as tlie various torj^edo craft whicli liad been 
engaged in the attack during the night, gradually 
and by different routes drew up towards the 
i-endez-vous. At 5.20 a.m. when I was about to 
form the armoured cruiser squadron info :i scjirrh 

(111) 



cordon from east to west for the purpose of cut- 
ting the enemy's line of retreat, the cruiser 
squadron, which was advancing northward, being 
then about 60 miles astern, singnalled that it had 
sighted the enemy eastwards and that several 
columns of smoke were observable. Shortly after- 
wards this squadron approached the enemy and 
reported that his force consisted of four battle- 
ships — two of these were subsequently found to 
be coast defence vessels — and two cruisers, and 
that it was advancing north. Without further 
inquiry it became clear that these ships formed 
the chief body of the enemy's remaining force. 
Therefore our main squadron and armoured cruiser 
squadron put about, and, gradually heading east, 
barred the enemy's line of advance, while the 
Togo and Uriu sections, joining the cruiser squad- 
ron, contained him in the rear, so that by 10.30 
a.m., at a point some 18 miles south of Take- 
shima (the Liancourt Rocks), the enemy was 
completely enveloped. His force consisted of the 
battleships Orel and Nikolai /., the coast defence 
ships Admiral Apraxin and Admiral Senyavin, 
and the cruiser Izumrod, five ships in all. An- 
other cruiser was seen far southward, but she 
passed out of sight. Not only had these rem- 
nants of the enemy's fleet already sustained heavy 
injuries, but they were also, of course, incapable 

(112) 



of resisting our superior force. Therefore soon 
after our main squadron and armoured-cruiser 
squadron had opened fire on them, Rear- Admiral 
Nebogatoff, who commanded tlie enemy's ships, 
signalled his desire to surrender with the force 
imder liim. I accepted his surrender, and as a 
special measure allowed the officers to retain their 
swords. But the cruiser Izumrod, previous to 
this sun-ender, had fled southward at full speed, 
and, breaking througli Togo's section, had then 
steamed east. Just then the Chitose, which, on 
her way back from Aburaya Bay, had sunk one 
of the enemy's destroyers en route, reached tlie 
scene, and, immediately changing her course, gave 
chase to the Izumrod, but failed to overtake her, 
and she escaped north. 

Previous to this, the Uriu section, while on 
its way north at 7 a.m., sighted one of the 
enemy's ships in the west. Thereupon the Otowa 
and the Niitaha under the command of Captain 
Arima, of the former cruiser, were detached to 
destroy her. At 9 a.m. they drew up to her, and 
found that she was tlie Svietlana, accompanied 
by a destroyer. Pushing closer, tliey opened fire, 
and after about an hour's engagement, sank the 
Svietlana at 11. G a.m, off Chyukpyong Bay. Tlie 
Niiiaka, accompanied by the destroyer Mura- 
himo, which had just arrived, continued the pur- 

(113) 



suit of the enemy's destroyer Bulstrl, and at 
11.50 a.m. drove it ashore and destroyed it in an 
unnamed bay some five miles north of Chyuk- 
pydng Bay. The survivors of these two vessels 
were all rescued by our special service steamers 
America Maru and Kasuga Maru. 

The main part of our combined S(|uadron 
which had received the enemy's surrender were 
still near the place of the surrender, and engaged 
in dealing with the four captured ships, when, at 
3 p.m. the enemy's vessel Admiral Oushakof 
was sighted approaching from the south. A 
detachment consisting of the Iwate and the 
Yakumo was immediately sent after her, and at 
a little after 8 p.m. overtook her, as she steamed 
south. They summoned her to surrender, but 
for reply she opened fire, and there was nothing 
for it but to attack her. She was finally sunk, 
and her survivors, over 300, were rescued. 

At 3.30 p.m, the destroyers Sazanami and 
Kagero sighted two hostile destroyers escaping 
east, and then at a point some forty miles 
southwest of Ulneung Islands. These were 
pursued at full speed to the northwest, and being 
overtaken at '4.45 p.m. action commenced. The 
rearmost of the two destroyers then ran up a 
white flag in token of surrender, whereupon the. 
Sazanami immediately took possession of her. She 

(114) 



was found to be tlie Bledcl with Vice- Admiral 
Rodjestvensky and his staff on board. These 
with her crew were made prisoners. The Kagero 
meanwliile continued the chase of the other des- 
troyer up to half-past six, but she finally escaped 
north. 

At 5 p.m. the Uriu section and the Yajima 
destroyer section, which were searcliing for the 
<3nemy in a westerly direction, sighted the battle- 
sliip Dmitri Donskoi^ steaming north, and went 
in pursuit. Just as the Russian vessel had reached 
a point some thirty miles south of the Uhiemig 
Islands, the Otowa and the Niitaka, with the 
destroyers Asagiri, Shirakumo, and Fubuki, which 
were coming back from Chyukpyong Bay, bore 
down on her from the west and opened fire, so 
that she was brought l)etween a cross cannonade 
from these and the Uriu section. This heavy 
fire from both sides was kept up until after 
sunset, by whicli time she was almost shattered, 
but still afloat. Durin^x iho niglit slie passed out 
of sight. As soon as tlio cruisers had ceased 
firing on lier, the Fuhnki and the Yajima des- 
troyer section attacked Jier, but the result was 
uncertain. On the following morning, liowever, 
she was seen drifting near the south-east coast 
of the Ulneung Islands, where she finally sank. 
Her survivors wlio had landed on the islands, 

(115) 



were taken off by the Kasiiga and the FtibukL 

While the greater part of the combined squad- 
rons were thus busily engaged in the north, deal- 
ing with the results of the pursuit, there were 
in the south also some considerable captures of 
ships remaining at the scene of the action. Thus 
the special service steamers Shinano Maru, Taiiicm 
Maru, and Yawata Maru which had set out early 
on the morning of the 28th, charged with the 
duty of searching the place of the engagement, 
sighted the Sissoi Velihy at a point some thirty 
miles north-east of Karasaki. She had been 
struck by torpedoes the night before, and was 
now on the point of sinking. They made prepa- 
rations for capturing her, and took off her crew. 
She went down, however, at 11.6 a.m. Again at 
5.30 a.m. the destroyer Shiranui and special serv- 
ice steamer Sado Maru found the Admiral Nach- 
imoff in a sinking condition some five miles east 
of Kotozaki in Tsushima. Thereafter they sighted 
the Vladimir Monomach approaching the same 
neighbourhood with a heavy list. The Sado Maru 
took measures for capturing both these ships, but 
they were so greatly shattered and were makings 
water so fast that they sank in succession at 
about 10 a.m. after their crews had been removed. 
Just then the enemy's destroyer Gromhy hove 
in sight and suddenly steamed off northward. 

(116) 



The destroyer Shlmmd went in pursuit, and 
about 11.30 a.m. attacked her, No. 63, a 
unit of the torpedo boat sections, co-operat- 
ing in the attack. The enemy's fire having 
been silenced, the destroyer was captured and 
her crew were made prisoners, but her injuries 
were so severe that she sank at 12.43 p.m. In 
addition to the above, the gunboats and special 
service steamers of our fleet, searching the coasts 
in the neighbourhood after the battle, picked up 
not a few of the crews of the sunken ships. In- 
cluding the crews of the captured vessels, the 
prisoners aggi-egated about 6000. 

The above are the results of the battle which 
continued from the afternoon of the 27th till the 
afternoon of the 28th. Subsequently, a part of 
the fleet conducted a search far southwards, but 
not a sign was seen of any of the enemy's ships. 
A])out thii-ty-eight of his vessels had attempted to 
pass the Sea of Japan, and of these, the ships 
that I believe to have escaped destruction or 
capture at our hands were limited to a few 
cniisers, destroyers, and special service steamers. 
Our own losses in the two days' fight were 
only three toipedo boats. Some others of our 
vessels sustained more or less injury, but not 
even one of tliem is incapacitated for future 
8ei*vice. Our casualties throughout the whole 

(117) 



fleet were 116 killed and 538 wounded, officers 
included, as shown in the detailed list ap- 
pended. 

There was no great difference in the strengths 
of the opposing forces in this action, and I con- 
sider that the enemy's officers and men fought 
with the utmost energy and intrepidity on behalf 
of their country. If, nevertheless, our combined 
squadrons won the victory and achieved the 
remarkable success recorded above, it was because 
of the virtues of His Majesty the Emperor, not 
owing to any human prowess. It cannot but be 
believed that the small number of our casualties 
was due to the protection of the spirits of the 
Imperial ancestors. Even our officers and men, 
who fought so valiantly and so stoutly, seeing 
these results, could find no language to express 
their astonishment. 

Comparative Statement. —The Enemy's 
Ships and their Fate. 

I. Battleships, eight ; whereof six were sunk 
(the Kniaz Souvaroff, the Alexander IIL, the Boro- 
dino, the Osliahia the Slssoi Veliki/, and the 
Navarin), and two were captured (the Orel and 
Nikolai /.). 

II. Cruisers, nine ; whereof four were sunk 
(the Admiral Naeliimoff the Dmitri Donshoi, the 

(118) 



Vladimir MmMnach, and the Svietlana)\ thi'ee 
fled to Manila and A^e^e interned (the Aurora, 
the Oleg, and the Jemtchiig); one escaped to 
Vladivostok (the Ahnaz), and one became a 
wreck in Vladimir Bay (the Izumrod), 

III. Coast defence ships, tln-ee ; whereof one 
was simk (the Admiral Oushahoff) and two were 
captured (the Admiral Apraxin and the Admiral 
Senyavin). 

Destroyers, nine ; whereof fonr were snnk 
(the Bidni, the Buistri, the Gromky, and one 
(itlier): one captured (the Biedovi); one went 
down on account of her injuries when attempting 
to reach Shanghai (the BlesiyaschtcJd) ; one fled 
to Shanghai and was disarmed (the Bodri); one 
escaped to Vladivostok (the Bravi), and the fate 
of one is unknown. 

IV. Auxiliaiy cruiser, one ; which was sunk 
(the Ural), 

V. Special service steamers, six ; whereof 
four were sunk (the Kamchatka the litis , the 
AvMstney, and the IIuhsI); and two fled to Shang^ 
)i;ii, where they were interned (the Kovea and 
the Sreri). 

VI. Hospital ships, two ; which were both 
seized, one (tlie Kastroma being subsequently 
released, and tlie other (the Orel) made a prize 
of war, 

(119) 



Recapitulation. Thirty-eight ships. 

Twenty, sunk. 

Six, captured. 

Two, went to the bottom or w^ere shattered 
while escaping. 

Six, disarmed and interned after flight to 
neutral ports. 

One, fate imknown. 

One, released after capture. 

Two, escaped. 

Admirl Togo's Report to the Emperor. 

On the occasion of his visit to the Imperial 
Palace on Oct. 22nd Admiral Togo, Commander-in- 
ehief of the Combined Fleet, presented to His 
Majesty the Emperor the following report on the 
naval warfare : — 

" Since the departure of the Combined Fleet 
for the front, in accordance with an Imperial Order, 
in February of last year, one year and a half have 
elapsed, and during that period eveiy battle on 
land and sea has resulted in victory for the Imperial 
Army and Navy. To day, peace being restored, 
we, Your Majesty's humble servants, after dis- 
charging our duties, are able to return in triumph to 
the capital. This is solely due to the illustrious 
virtues of Your Majesty, for whicli we are very 
thankful. 

(120) 



" When the Combined Fleet commenced its 
first operations on the sea, acting in accordance 
with the Imperial order, I, in consideration of the 
state of affairs on land and sea, made it the 
object of our strategy to press the main force of 
the enemy's squadron in tlie direction of Port 
Aiiihur, and to prevent the enem3^'s ships from 
proceeding to the stronghold of Vladivostok. 
With tins end in view w^e delivered immediate 
attacks on the enemy at Port Arthur and Che- 
mulpo, and continued to further attack him, grad- 
ually diminishing liis strength. We also repeated- 
ly attempted the dangerous task of blockading the 
enemy's port, and laid mines in front of tlie latter, 
in order to minimize the sphere within whicli the 
enemy could operate. A portion of the Fk\)t was 
stationed at a strategical point in tlie C'orean 
Straits, with the object of checking tlie enemy at 
Vladivostok,' and at the same time of making 
the straits a second line of defence against the 
enemy at Port Arthur. During the first half of 
tills period of operations, the enemy, taking ndvan- 
tage of the locaHty, always assumed the defensive, 
thus making our repeated attacks fruitless. To- 
ward the middle of August, when the main force 
of the enemy's squadron attempted to escape 
from Port Arthur to Vladivostok, the battles in 
the Yellow Sea and off Ulsan took place. ^W the 

(121) 



enemy's action during these battles, we were suc- 
cessful in fully understanding his plan of opera- 
tions, and in accomplishing more than half of 
our scheme. Afterwards, the military operations 
against the enemy gradually improved, and the 
untiring efforts of our Investing Army in the rear 
of Port Arthur, acting in co-operation with the 
permanent blockade at sea, finally resulted in the 
destruQtion of the main portion of the enemy's 
squadron at the stronghold. Reviewing the opera- 
tions during this period, we believe that our suc- 
cess farther increased as the war progressed, and 
that during this some ten months of fighting the 
energy and bravery of our officers were displayed 
to the highest degree. We further believe that 
in spite of the death of not a small number of 
our brave officers and men, and the destruction 
of several war- ships, the final result of the war 
was then determined, and the decisive victory in 
the Sea of Japan may be traced to this first period 
of operations. 

" The second period of the naval operations 
commenced with this year. Oar fleet re- organized 
its forces so as to meet the enemy's second 
squadron. At the same time the Russian littoral 
provinces were blockaded, and a detachment was 
occasionally sent to the southern seas in order 
to carry out demonstrations along the enemy's 

(122) 



route. During this period, the number of vessels 
seized at the Tsushima, Tsugaru, Soya, Kunajiri 
and other straits reached more than 30. In May,, 
as the enemj^'s second squadron appeared in 
the neighbouring waters, our entire forces were 
concentrated at tlie Corean Channel, acting on 
the principle of meeting an exhausted enemy by 
a force readv for action. Bv the gi^ace of Heaven,, 
our gallant officers and men scored successes 
one by one ; and the enemy being swept away 
fi'om the surface of the sea once and for all, by 
the battle of the Sea of Japan, the operations 
of the period were brought to a conclusion. 

*' Since then the sea has been completely under 
our control in iiame and reality, and the third 
period of the naval operations opened with a 
gi-eat decrease in our duties. At times we assisted 
the army in the conquest of Karafuto, and dis- 
charged our duties of co-operation without the 
loss of a single life. At intervals we carried out 
demonstrative operations in North Corea. The 
blockade of the Kussian provinces, on the other 
hand, was firmly maintained till the restoration 
of peace. 

" In short, the . oj)erations of the Combined 
Fleet were carric^l out in order to elucidate the 
situation in the first period, to achieve victory in 
the second ]>eriod, and to reap the fruits of such 

(123) 



victories in the third period. In spite of the 
importance and difficulty of the task the naval 
operations on the whole made smooth progress, 
find have been brought to the present conclusion. 
The Imperial war- ships which have returned to 
Tokyo Bay in triumph, number more than 170, 
including small craft. Though several vessels were 
lost in the war, still we have the honour to 
mention that our fleet, having acquired several 
vessels as prizes of war, retains a strength not 
inferior to that before the war. In conclusion, 
I, Your Majesty's humble subject, appreciate the 
successes won by the Army in Manchuria and 
Corea, from which the Combined Fleet derived 
considerable benefit, and the assistance and co- 
operation of the various departments of the Navy, 
and other offices, to which are attributed the satisfac- 
tory progress of the naval operations. I beg here- 
with to respectfully submit to Your Majesty the 
proceedings of the Naval Keview, and the intima- 
tion of the conclusion of our duties corresponding 
to Your Majesty's order. 

" Heihachiro Togo, 
" Commander-in-Chief of tlie 
'' Combined Fleet." 



(m) 



The Admirars Final Order on Dispersal 
of the Combined Fleet. 

Amiral Togo, before the dispersal of the Com- 
bined Fleet, issued the following Order to the 
officers and men : — 

The twenty months' war has now become a 
thmg of the past, and our Combined Fleet is 
about to disperse. But this will not bring any 
change in the resi3onsibilities of our Naval men. 
In order to preserve for all time the fruit of the 
late war, and to uphold the rising prestige of 
the Empire, it is necessary that the Navy, Avhich 
in i>eace or war equally must stand as the coun- 
try's outer bulwark, should maintain its full 
strength on the sea, and be ready for any emerg- 
ency. Naval strength does not merely depend 
on possessing ships and guns, but mainly depends 
on an invisible but real power, the effective power 
of the men who use the ships and guns. If one 
gun can fire a hundred shots that hit their mark 
every time, it is as good as a hundred guns 
which can each hit only once in a hundred times. 
Therefore in the Navy, we ought to aim at being 
strong, apart from the strength of the material 
which we handle. Our recent naval victory, while 
it was attrit)utable in large measure to the ilhis- 
trioas virtues of H. M. tlie Emperor, was also 

(125) 



■clLie to our training in ordinary times. If we can 
deduce the future from the past, we must not 
rest at ease, even at , present when the war is 
concluded. The hfe of a naval man is a never- 
ceasing war and whether the country is engaged 
in a war or not, makes no difference in his re- 
sponsibilities. In war he may display his strength, 
nnd in poace he should acoumulate it. Always he 
is called upon to discharge his duties. For the 
past year and a half, we fought against wind 
and wave, sustained heat and cold, and engaged 
the enemy in life and death struggles. It was 
no light task, but it may be regarded as a long 
series of manoeuvres. It was the fortune of the 
naval men, who participated in the engagements, 
to draw manifold lessons fi'om them. This fortune 
more than made up for the hardships of war. 
Should the Navy men allow themselves to get 
rusty in time of peace, the war- ships, however 
majestic their appearance may be, will be like ^ 
a house built on the sand, easily destroyed by 
the blast of any gale. We ought to guard our- 
selves against snch slackness. 

In ancient times Corea, after conquest by 
Japan, was under our control for four hundred 
years, but was lost to Japan, through the weaken- 
ing of our Navy. In later times, the Tokugawa 
Shogunate neglected the national defence, with 

(126) 



the result tliat the whole Empn*e was panic-struck 
at the advent of a few American war- ships, and 
tlien could not prevent Russia gaining a foothold 
in Saghalien. In the liistory of the West, the 
British Navy, emerging victorious at the Xile and 
Trafalgar, not only gave England a secure posi- 
tion, but, as its force was subsequently maintain- 
ed at tlie highest standard of efficiency, has suc- 
ceeded up to the present in protecting the interests 
and extending the influence of Great Britain. All 
these facts, old and new, of the East and 
West, are dependent to a certain degree on politi- 
cal exigencies, but mainly on the question whether 
or not the military men forget the time of war 
in time of peace. We, the naval men whose 
fortune it is to survive the war, must add the ex- 
perience obtained in the war to the training of 
the past, and exert ourselves for the further ad- 
vancement of the Nav}'-, so that we may not fall 
Ixjliind the times. Only when, being ever mindful 
of the Imperial instructions, we liave made stroiiu- 
ous efforts, and kept our streugtli and energy up 
<<) tlic mark, against the time of necessity, may 
we hope for the successful execution of om^ duties 
of protecting the country. Heaven gives the laurels 
of victory in war to those only who keep them- 
selves in training in time of peace, and WIN THE 
BATTLE BEFOllE IT 18 FOUGHT. Heaven like- 

(127) 



wise takes away the crown of victory from those 
who soon grow satisfied with a few victories, and 
allow their activities to relax in time of peace. 
The ancient sage says " Tighten your helmet string 
after a victory !" 

Heihachieo Togo, 
Commander-in-Chief of the 
Combined Fleet. 



(128) 



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LOWED 

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This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. all. 

Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 



JUNl 1197^ 9 9 



i iB CD CIRC D m MAY 1 i 7 . 1 



]EC 1 7 1983 



NOV 6 1975 9 



REC. CIR. liFC 6 '75 



BEbCUL MAR Z"6 



JAN 11902 



i^ffeTO DEC 



9 1981 



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VB.m^m(l6 1982 



6 



SENT ON ILL 



SEP 2 6 1997 



U , C. BERKELEY 



SENT ON ILL 



iFFR 1 2 1098 



i^'k v^. 4 



U, C. BgRK£iLEY 



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LD 21-32»v-3,'74 
(R7057sl0)476 — A-32 



General Libraiy 
University of California 



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